International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs <p>The International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports (IJPEFS) is an international, print / online quarterly journal (ISSN.No: Print (2277-5447) and Online (2457-0753) ) published in English. The aim of IJPEFS is to stimulate knowledge to professionals, researchers and academicians working in the fields of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports Sciences.</p> International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports en-US International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2277-5447 The EFFECT OF CONCURRENT TRAINING COMBINED WITH SELECTED NUTRITIONAL DESIGN ON SELECTED PHYSICAL FITNESS COMPONENTS OF MALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/307 <ol> <li><em><u>Abstract</u></em></li> <li><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Concurrent Training (CT) is the combination of resistance and endurance training in a periodized program to maximize all aspects of physical performance. Nutrition, physical performance and the level of functional capacity of the human beings are interrelated. Any dietary deficiency that adversely affects the health of the individual is likely to impair his or her physical performance capacity. The purpose of the present study was to find out the effect of concurrent training combined with selected nutritional design on selected physical fitness components of male football players.&nbsp; To achieve the purpose of this study, 28 male football players’ subjects of Nekemte Kenema were selected by using census sampling technique and their age ranged from 20 to 24 years old. The subjects were underwent twelve weeks concurrent training combined with selected nutritional design for three days per week with duration of 70 minutes. Subjects of experimental groups were tested on physical fitness components prior to and after the 12 weeks consumption of nutrition design combined with training period. The data collected from the participants pre and post-test was statistically examined to find out the significant improvement by using SPSS version 20, descriptive and paired t-test. In all cases, the criteria for statistical significance were set at 0.05 level of confidence (P&lt;0.05). The results show that there were significant positive changes on selected physical fitness components.</em></li> </ol> Edosa Jabesa Copyright (c) 9 3 Cerebral Palsy: Enhancing Movement Opportunity with Help from the Care Team https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/306 <p>Cerebral palsy is the most common motor disability in childhood. Cerebral palsy can significantly impact the amount of physical activity and individual obtains, and the scope and quality of the physical activity may be limited by cerebral palsy. High-quality physical education can integrate children with cerebral palsy into movement programing, as to enable children with cerebral palsy to achieve goals related to cognitive skills associated with exploring physical health, maintaining physical health, as well as affective values towards physical health, movement, play, and general wellbeing. This article provides a basic overview of the physical characteristics of cerebral palsy, as well as outlines ways the child’s educational care-team can work with physical educators and physical therapist to enhance movement skills and health behavior.</p> Colin Pennington Lacie Pennington Carrah Nelson Kirsten Fuchs Copyright (c) 9 3 Biochemical and Functional Characteristics of Elderly Female Residents in the Rural and Urban Sectors of Yumbe, Chile https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/305 <p><em>Objective</em>: this study aimed to evaluate and compare functional capacity and biochemical factors among elderly women living in the urban and rural sectors of Yumbe, Chile. &nbsp;<em>Methods</em>: The sample consisted of 2 groups of elderly women from the province of Ñuble, from the eighth region of Chile, divided into urban elderly (UE) (n = 20) with a mean age of 67.57 ± 3.4 years, and rural elderly (RE) (n = 20), with a mean age of 71.25 ± 2.2 years. The following biochemical variables were analyzed: glycemic index a, and triglycerides levels and cholesterol levels. The test battery used to assess functional capacity was the Senior Fitness Test<em>. Results</em>: It was found that the UE group presented better indices than the RE group for all variables except glycemia, for which the RE group presented better indices. In the functional capacity, in particular the upper and lower body strength is significant lower in the RE. <em>Conclusions</em>: The functional capacity and the biochemical parameters studied have shown that the elderly women of different social conditions in the Yumbe-Chile region do not present a good degree of functionality, and also show high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which might be the cause of increased prevalence of health problems in this population.</p> Andrés Abarca Molina Sandro Fernandes da Silva Cintia Campolina Duarte Rocha José Fernandes Filho Copyright (c) 9 3 Comparison of somatic characteristics and motion prerequisites between children in the age range of 6 to 7 years who perform organised physical activities, and children not engaged in sports https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/304 <p>Low physical activity in children of pre-school and younger school age has been a multifaceted problem for several years, which is being addressed by a number of scientists, primarily doctors, educationalists, and psychologists. The purpose of our study is to compare somatic and motion prerequisites among physically active and physically inactive children from the first grades of primary schools in the Pilsen region.</p> <p>The research sample consisted of 753 pupils from the first grades of primary schools in the Pilsen region, of which 421 boys and 332 girls. Of a total number of pupils, 176 (23.4%) girls and 275 (36.5%) boys are engaged in any sporting activities. At the time of measurement, their average age was 6.87±0.59 years.</p> <p>To obtain somatic characteristics, body heights and weights of children were measured, and from the measured data, a body mass index (BMI) for the child category was calculated. To determine the level of motion prerequisites, we used the DMT 6-18 test battery, consisting of 8 tests. The tests are aimed at assessing the level of dynamic and explosive power, speed, co-ordination, balance, flexibility, and endurance.</p> <p>The results of our study highlight the fact that even in the age range of 6 to 7 years, there are significant differences between physically active and physically inactive children in the tests, which monitor motion prerequisites of children. Statistically significant differences were seen primarily in tests which monitor the level of fitness abilities, i.e. the components of the body health-oriented fitness.</p> Karel Svatora Tereza Fajfrlikova Petra Spottova Copyright (c) 9 3 Assessing Resilience in Youth (U16) Volleyball National Teams https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/303 <p>The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience of youth high level volleyball players. Forty-eight volleyball national team players U16 from Greece and Romania participated to the study (18 females and 30 males). The Self Evaluation Resilience test was used for the study. The data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0 using one-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni adjustment test. Results showed statistically significant differences between the males and females national team volleyball players in variables ‘‘healthy lifestyle’’ and ‘‘self-efficacy’’. It was concluded that coaches and volleyball players should recognize that female’s volleyball players focused more in healthy life style and having less self-efficacy comparing to same aged male’s volleyball players.</p> Asterios Patsiaouras Catalin Stirbu Copyright (c) 9 3 E-LEARNING ITS IMPACT ON JAMMU & KASHMIR DURING COVID-19 “WHERE IT STANDS” https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/302 <p>this research paper was to find out the impact of governments new initiative of E-Learning in the newly designed Union-Territory of Jammu &amp; Kashmir as there were reports by various medias that this initiative is not so effective at the ground level so in order to check their statement validity it was observed that such a research should take place. The whole data taken in this research is based on the Jammu &amp; Kashmir Union-territory and it is limited with its demography.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MR. ABID BASHIR RATHER MS. MOUSMI VERMA Copyright (c) 9 3 Heart rate analysis during very deep dives in flooded caves: single case study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/301 <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the heart rate adaptations during deep dave diving with MCCR (mechanical closed circuit rebreather). Previous studies on this matter have not been conducted to the depths reached in this study and most of them have been conducted inside hyperbaric chambers trying to recreate the immersion conditions. The data collection took place during the exploration of two hydrogeological sites by a professional cave diver. The recordings were made using a SCUBAPRO GALILEO SOL® dive computer capable of monitoring the heart rate, with a sampling interval of 0,25 Hz. The data collected confirm a direct relationship between the increase in diving depth and the increase in the detected heart rate.</p> Marco Ivaldi Andrea Ciavattini Cugliari Giovanni Copyright (c) 2020 Marco Ivaldi, Andrea Ciavattini, Cugliari Giovanni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-30 2020-08-30 9 3 9 17 10.34256/ijpefs2032 An Exposure-Based Intervention Dismantles College-Aged Females’ Barriers for Resistance Training: Project WONDER Training https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/299 <p>This study aimed to examine the effects of an exposure-based resistance training (RT) intervention on perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for RT in college-aged females and to assess moderating effects of a trainer-trainee relationship on any intervention outcomes. A sample of 13 (<em>M<sub>age</sub> = </em>20.7 <em>±</em> 1.3y) physically active, non-resistance training female students completed an 8-week intervention (1hr 45min, twice per week). The intervention was effective in reducing perceived time/effort (<em>t</em>[12] <em>=</em> 5.02, <em>p &lt; </em>0.001, <em>d =</em> 1.81), physical effect (<em>t</em>[12] <em>=</em> 2.48, <em>p = </em>0.029, <em>d = </em>0.86) and social (<em>t</em>[12] <em>=</em> 4.86, <em>p &lt; </em>.001, <em>d = </em>1.97) RT barriers. A positive change pattern was established in stress management (<em>t</em>[12] <em>=</em> 2.21, <em>p = </em>0.048, <em>d = </em>0.62), revitalization (<em>t</em>[12] <em>=</em> 2.71, <em>p = </em>.019, <em>d = </em>0.95), and enjoyment (<em>t</em>[12] <em>=</em> 3.53, <em>p = </em>.004, <em>d = </em>1.18). Finally, the analyses showed that goal (? = 0.23[0.02], <em>p &lt;</em> 0001, <em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.979) and bond (? = 0.21[.01], <em>p &lt;</em> 0001, <em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.995) alliances were positive moderators with large-sized effects on changes in physical barriers. For stress management, bond alliance was the only statistically significant, small-sized moderator, with a greater bond increasing the effect on the intervention (? = 0.21[.01], <em>p &lt;</em> 0001, <em>R<sup>2</sup> = </em>0.997). This data suggests that an exposure-based RT intervention is beneficial for reducing perceived RT barriers in physically active, non-resistance training college-aged women and that bond-oriented support from the trainer is especially impactful in reducing some of those perceived barriers.</p> Samantha Thompson Ellen M. Evans Sami Yli-Piipari Copyright (c) 9 3 a COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE HEART RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE OF DEBRE MARKOSE UNIVERSITY 3rdYEAR NURSING AND SPORT SCIENCEFEMALESTUDENTS DURING REST AND EXERCISE https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/298 <h1>Abstract</h1> <p><em>The aim of this study is to determine the association of heart rate (HR) and bloodpressure (BP) between Debre Markos University sport science and nursing students at rest time and during exercise. For this study, 40 healthy and volunteer female students were used as the sample of this study from the total of 70 3<sup>rd</sup> year nursing and sport science female students. HR and BP was recorded both during rest and exercise after training during step test. In this study, 40.5cm height steeper, box or bench was used for step test. The duration of the training for step-test exercise was 3-minutes. The investigation was on the parameters of HR, BP, syastolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and recovery HR. The data was analyzed by using simple descriptive analysis. The finding suggested that there is a significant difference in HR and BP in female sport science students both during rest and exercise after training than healthy nursing female students. So, generally as compared to nursing students, sport science students HR and BPhad shown a significant difference during rest and exercise. </em></p> getu teferi Yalemsew Demlie Daniel Kibret Copyright (c) 9 3 a Regular Physical Exercise for Prevention and Treatment of Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/297 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Low back pain specifically affects the lumbar region of the spine. The pain is usually related with mostly muscle tension, and often limits our range of movement. The pain sometimes radiates (spreads) down to one or both legs. Low back pain (LBP) is a common problem involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back. The purposes of this review study are described about low back pain and to examine recommended exercise for prevention and management it, to review scientific evidence on the effect of physical exercise on low back pain and to review the risk factors which lead to develop low back pain. The main focus of this review paper is to show the type of physical exercise recommended to prevent and manage low back pain and their effect. It has been also showed the risk factors which lead to develop low back pain.</p> getu teferi Copyright (c) 9 3 The relative effect of CXWORXTM versus TabataTM group exercise programs on body mass index, body composition, predicted VO2max and body image in adult exercisers https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/296 <p>In this present work we took an initiation to compares the effects of two common approaches to group exercise: CXWORX<sup>TM</sup> and Tabata<sup>TM </sup>, which employ differing exercise strategies, on common fitness measures and psychological perceptions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tabata<sup>TM </sup>versus CXWORX<sup>TM</sup> on body mass index (BMI), body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2<sub>max</sub>) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) measured self-perceptions in adult exercisers. The mixed gender sample consisted of a sub-set of 10 adult cross fit exercisers and 10 students from a regional comprehensive university class randomized to each exercise program. Analysis of Variance was used to examine program effects. While no significant main effect of the training period on body composition or BMI was found; mean VO2<sub>max </sub>was significantly increased as a large main effect across the study groups (F=1.054, P&lt;0.05, η<sup>2</sup> =0.533) without significant interaction. In addition, there was a significant large interactive effect of the training program and time to increase MBSRQ scores for appearance evaluation (F=1.648, P&lt;0.05, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.367), appearance orientation (F=1.447, P&lt;0.05, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.377), fitness evaluation (F=1.637, P&lt;0.05, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.557), and body areas satisfaction (F=2.744, P&lt;0.05, η<sup>2</sup> = 0.533), in the CXWORX<sup>TM </sup>group in comparison with the Tabata<sup>TM </sup>group. In conclusion, participants who completed a CXWORX<sup>TM </sup>exercise program increase VO2<sub>max</sub> similarly to participants who complete a Tabata<sup>TM </sup>exercise program, while also reporting significant improvements in body image scores which the Tabata<sup>TM</sup> participants did not. Neither program had a significant effect on body composition or BMI.</p> Tina Twilleger George M Dallam Carol P Foust Copyright (c) 2020 Tina Twilleger, George M Dallam, Carol P Foust https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-08-15 2020-08-15 9 3 1 8 10.34256/ijpefs2031 The effect of physical activity on academic performance and mental health: Systematic review https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/294 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this review study is to examine association of sports participationwith students’ academic achievementand mental health (cognitive development). Understanding the association of participation in sport activities with academic achievement and cognitive development is very important for teachers, schoolpsychologists, parents, policy makers and other stakeholders. In general, this review result has showed that there was a significant relationship between physical fitness level and academic achievement and higher achievement was associated with higher levels of physical fitness. The absence of a physically active lifestyle of students can adversely affect their health and total well-being, increasing the risk of chronic diseases/non-communicable diseases. In other way if students have poor physical fitness appearingsleep apnea, which has been linked to impair a child’s ability to concentrate and stay alert during the day, which could have a negative impact on academic performance. Participation in physical activity has a small to moderate effect in prevention and management of the risk of depression and anxiety which in turn have effect on academic achievement.</p> <p>The future generations may shorter life expectancy than their parents are a frightening outlook. Steps are should be taken by government and concerned body to fight this problem. Parents and educators must work together to prevent students from overweight and/or obese and from non-communicable diseases.</p> getu teferi Copyright (c) 9 3 APPLICATION OF CORRECTIVE GYMNASTICS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION ACTIVITIES https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/290 <p>The preschool institution represents the beginning of institutional upbringing and education, and in cooperation with the family and respecting the developmental needs and possibilities of children, educational work should be focused on the comprehensive development of the child's personality. During the day, children spend some time in a preschool institution, where, among other things, physical activities are or should be carried out. Directed physical activity is specific in relation to other activities carried out in kindergarten. This specificity is reflected in the fact that the content can affect the improvement of health status and the development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. In physical education, mobile play often appears, which can be carried out independently of other forms of work or in the framework of directed physical activities, morning physical exercise, physical-recreational break, physical-rhythmic activities or excursions. space, props, estimated playing time, game complexity. It is concluded that children who engage in physical activities less often have difficulties in developing motor skills and enriching motor skills, but it is also possible the other way around - that children with weaker motor skills do not want to participate in physical activities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: Corrective gymnastics, children, motor skills</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Dejan Gojkovic Copyright (c) 9 3 The kinematical analysis of the static and dynamic balance and their relationships with the accuracy kicking in soccer players U16 https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/292 <p>The goal was to describe the kinematical analysis of the static and dynamic balance and their relationships with the accuracy kicking in soccer players U16. Participants were 12 male soccer players (age= 15.6±0.51years, Length= 169.1±2.55cm, Weight= 66.3±2.40kg). Balance ability was evaluated with two types: Stork test (static balance), and Fleishman test (dynamic balance). also accuracy kicking in soccer was evaluated with two tests: Nested rectangles test, and Nelson Worner test. during the performance of accuracy kicking tests we analyzed the kinematic variables (Angles of Knee, Thighs, Trunk and Height BCG) by used one camera (AEE Magic Cam) For video capturing, and Dartfish .9 software for kinematical analyze. The data were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 program.&nbsp; Descriptive statistics (mean ± SD) and P test for the correlations between variables studied.</p> <p>As a result of the statistical analysis, there was significant correlations between static balance with <sup>D</sup> Height BCG at (p ? .001) in all phases of kicking the ball, also with dynamic balance at (p ? .001) and with Nested rectangles test at (p ? .01) in phases of the backswing and ball contact, and at (p ? .05) in the follow-through phase. In conclusion, the kinematical variables <sup>D</sup> Height BCG and Knee angle were observed to effective in dynamic and static balance, which in turn is closely related to the accuracy of soccer kicking.</p> Guebli Abdelkader Ben Henni Abdelkader Sba Bouabdellah Copyright (c) 9 3 The effect of CXWORXTM versus TabataTM on body mass index, body composition, predicted VO2max and body image in adult exercisers. https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/291 <p>No published field research has been found that directly compares the effects of two common approaches to group exercise: CXWORX<sup>TM</sup>&nbsp; and Tabata<sup>TM </sup>, which employ differing exercise strategies, on common fitness measures and psychological perceptions. &nbsp;&nbsp;The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Tabata<sup>TM </sup>versus CXWORX<sup>TM</sup> on body mass index (BMI), body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2<sub>max</sub>) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ) measured self-perceptions in adult exercisers.&nbsp; The mixed gender sample consisted of a sub-set of 10 adult cross fit exercisers and 10 students from a regional comprehensive university class randomized to each exercise program.&nbsp; Analysis of Variance was used to examine program effects. While no significant main effect of the training period on body composition or BMI was found; mean VO2<sub>max </sub>was significantly increased as a large main effect across the study groups (F=1.054, P&lt;0.05, ?<sup>2</sup> =0.533) without significant interaction.&nbsp;&nbsp; In addition, there was a significant large interactive effect of the training program and time to increase MBSRQ scores for appearance evaluation (F=1.648, P&lt;0.05, ?<sup>2</sup> = 0.367), appearance orientation (F=1.447, P&lt;0.05,&nbsp; ?<sup>2</sup> = 0.377), fitness evaluation (F=1.637, P&lt;0.05, ?<sup>2</sup> = 0.557), and body areas satisfaction (F=2.744, P&lt;0.05, ?<sup>2</sup> = 0.533), in the CXWORX<sup>TM&nbsp; </sup>group in comparison with the Tabata<sup>TM </sup>group.&nbsp; In conclusion, participants who completed a CXWORX<sup>TM </sup>exercise program increase VO2<sub>max</sub> similarly to participants who complete a Tabata<sup>TM </sup>exercise program, while also reporting significant improvements in body image scores which the Tabata<sup>TM</sup> participants did not.&nbsp; Neither program had a significant effect on body composition or BMI.</p> Tina Lee Twilleger George Dallam Carol Foust Copyright (c) 9 3 Kinematics of assisted and unassisted plyometric training of vertical jumping and rebounding in youth male football players – A six-week training study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/289 <p>The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics of assisted and unassisted plyometric training of vertical jumping and rebounding activities following a six-week training intervention. 13 youth males from a professional football academy completed six weeks of either unassisted (n = 6) or band-assisted (n = 7) plyometric training sessions twice a week during their competitive season. Pre- and post-assessments of counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, 50 cm drop-jump (DJ<sub>50</sub>) ground contact time (GCT), jump height and reactive strength index (RSI), and submaximal-hopping (SMH) GCT, jump height and RSI were compared. Pre- and post-assessment ankle angle at touch-down (TD), peak flexion (PF) and mid-flight (MF) were also analysed for the submaximal-hop test only. Following training, significant main effects of time were observed for CMJ height, DJ<sub>50</sub> GCT and MF ankle angle (p &lt; 0.05) and a significant effect of group was observed for DJ<sub>50</sub> RSI (p &lt; 0.05). These results suggest that both unassisted and assisted plyometric training may be useful for enhancing the kinematics and technical performance of plyometric activities in a youth male football population.</p> Christopher L. Bakker Matthew F. Watson Jeremy A. Moody Copyright (c) 2020 Christopher L. Bakker, Matthew F. Watson, Jeremy A. Moody https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 9 3 57 71 10.34256/ijpefs2028 The Impact of the Change of Water Polo Rules on the Game Dynamics https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/288 <p>This research aimed to identify a change in the dynamics of the water polo game related to identifying differences in the number of goals scored before and after the introduction of the current 2019 rules. The sample analyzed 96 matches from the 2018 and 2020 European Water Polo Championships. The sample of variables included five variables for both subsamples, which referred to the total number of goals scored in the match, as well as the total number of goals per quarter. By applying the T-test for small independent samples, it was determined that at a statistically significant level, a higher number of goals was achieved in the third and fourth quarters, as well as the total number of goals in the 2020 European Championship in Hungary, compared to the 2018 European Championship in Spain. No statistically significant differences were found in the variables related to the total number of goals in the first and second quarters of the water polo match. The rule change, which came into force in 2019, was driven by changes in the game that directly reflected in a more dynamic game that resulted in more goals per game as well as in the final quarter of the game. These changes were undoubtedly preceded by changes in the total number of attacks, faster swimming, more frequent shots, which should definitely be determined by additional research.</p> Novica Gardasevic Marko Joksimovic Copyright (c) 2020 Novica Gardasevic, Marko Joksimovic https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-06 2020-06-06 9 3 51 56 10.34256/ijpefs2027 Exploring the use of goal proximity by Olympic athletes: A preliminary study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/286 <p>An athlete’s 4-year Olympic preparation cycle requires systematic planning involving the use of short- and long-term goals. These goals provide athletes with increased motivation, persistence, effort and direction in their goal pursuit. Short-term goals can be viewed as steppingstones towards the long-term goals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the use of short- and long-term goals by Olympic athletes. A qualitative design was used, with semi-structured interviews as the major data source. Participants were purposefully sampled from a typically understudied sports population. Four male Olympians, representing swimming and athletics, shared their experiences about how and why they set and used short- and long-term goals. The athletes spent an average of 11.3 years training and competing at the elite level. Findings revealed that winning a national championship and competing at the Olympic Games were their major long-term goals. Furthermore, these goals did not change during their athletic career. Short-term goals were primarily set to learn, develop and improve their skills/techniques that would allow them to reach their ultimate goals. Major competitive events (e.g. national championships, Pan Am Games, Olympic Games) dictated how they planned these goals. The findings also support previous research suggesting the use of both short and long-term goals. Coaches and young athletes can use the information provided to plan their sports goals. Future research should investigate the goal setting practices of team versus individual sport Olympic athletes.</p> Greg sun Copyright (c) 2020 Greg sun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-09-12 2020-09-12 9 3 18 23 10.34256/ijpefs2033 The Influence of Experiential Pedagogy on Undergraduate Sport Coaching Students’ ‘Real World’ Practice https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/285 <p>There is a body of research on the challenges that coaches face when trying to implement athlete-centred coaching, but very little attention has been paid to the influence that the growing number of sport coaching degrees has on coaches’ beliefs and practice in regard to athlete-centred coaching. While studies have been conducted on sport coaches’ use of game-based approaches (GBA) to coaching, undergraduate sport coaching students’ interpretation of this coaching innovation has been largely overlooked. This article takes a step toward redressing this oversight by reporting on a study that inquired into the influence of the experiential pedagogy used in a course on athlete-centred coaching on students’ beliefs about coaching and their practice. The scholarship of teaching study adopted a constructivist grounded theory methodology to focus on five undergraduates in a sport coaching program with data generated through a series of three interviews with each participant. This study concludes that the experience-based course design was effective in influencing undergraduate students’ beliefs about coaching and their practice outside university.</p> Light R.L. Razak M.S. Copyright (c) 2020 Light R.L., Razak M.S. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-03 2020-06-03 9 3 37 44 10.34256/ijpefs2025 Functional state of the musculoskeletal system and injury rate among ice hockey players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/284 <p>Injuries in hockey need not be primarily caused by physical contact. The second category may include injuries caused by inappropriate loading, which in turn affects the state of the musculoskeletal system during matches or training sessions. As a result of this, in the 2018-19season, two elite senior hockey teams were tested for the functional state of the musculoskeletal system, which was also related to players’ ice time and the rate of injuries during the season. The sample included 30 hockey players (15 forwards, 12 defensemen, and 3 goalkeepers). Testing was carried out at the beginning of the season. Players performed the Y balance test and underwent FMS screening. The results showed that the shoulder region is most susceptible to injury. The hockey players suffered from hamstring muscle imbalance. Active ice time can be considered a determining parameter which can cause injury. However, its relationship with other variables has not been confirmed.</p> Marek Kokinda Daniel Kicura Róbert Kandrac Stefan Fabian Copyright (c) 2020 Marek Kokinda, Daniel Kicura, Róbert Kandrac, Stefan Fabian https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-03 2020-06-03 9 3 30 36 10.34256/ijpefs2024 Repeated jump ability in young basketball players at different game stages and its relationship to aerobic capacity https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/282 <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) during three different stages of a basketball game, and to examine their relationships with the aerobic capacity of young basketball players. Sixteen young (17.2 ± 0.4 yrs) trained basketball players performed an RJT (six sets of six consecutive vertical jumps) after warm-up, at halftime, and after a full game, as well as an aerobic power test (20m shuttle run test), each test taking place on a different day. Performance indices for each of the RJTs were the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the performance decrement (PD) during the tests. The IJ and TJ were significantly higher at the halftime compared with both after warm-up and after a full-time basketball game (<em>p</em>&lt;0.01). There were no significant differences in IJ and TJ in the full-time game compared to the warm-up. There was no significant difference in the PD during any of the three game stages. No significant relationships were found between the aerobic capacity and any of the RJT performance indices at the different stages of the game. The findings suggest that a more intense warm-up procedure is needed for improved repeated jumping performance in the early stages of a basketball game. The findings also suggest that the aerobic energy system plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout the repeated jumping activity of young basketball players.</p> Shai Segev Yoav Meckel Copyright (c) 9 3 Modification of Cooper’s 12-min Run Test to Predict Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Indian Cricketers https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/281 <p>Cooper’s 12-minute run test (CRT) for prediction of maximum oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2max</sub>) has not yet been explored in Indian sportspersons. Present investigation was conducted to evaluate the applicability of CRT in Indian cricketers. 75 male and 45 female cricket players were randomly recruited from reputed cricket academies of Kolkata, India and were randomly assigned into the study group (male = 45, female = 25) and confirmatory group (male = 30, female = 20). Incremental cycle ergometer exercise was used for direct estimation of VO<sub>2max</sub> by expired gas analysis and the indirect prediction of VO<sub>2max</sub> (PVO<sub>2max</sub>) was performed by CRT method. The current protocol of CRT was found to be inapplicable in both the genders of Cricketers due to a significant difference between PVO<sub>2max</sub> and VO<sub>2max</sub> and a large limit of agreement between PVO<sub>2max</sub> and VO<sub>2max</sub> in the study groups. A significant correlation (r = 0.76 in males and r = 0.79 in females, p&lt;0.001) was depicted between VO<sub>2max</sub> and distance covered in CRT. Regression equations were computed based on the significant correlation. The application of these equations in the confirmatory groups revealed an insignificant difference between PVO<sub>2max</sub> and VO<sub>2max</sub> and narrow limits of agreement. Standard errors of the estimate of the regression norms were also minimal. Therefore, modified equations are recommended for CRT application for valid and precise evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of VO<sub>2max</sub> in male and female Indian cricketers.</p> Amit Bandyopadhyay Copyright (c) 2020 Amit Bandyopadhyay https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-22 2020-06-22 9 3 72 78 10.34256/ijpefs2029 The effect of different priming activities performed 24 hours prior to competition https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/280 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine if performing a lower body resistance training priming activity effects athletic performance completed 24 hours later. University level field hockey players (N = 10) completed 1 control (CON) and 2 experimental trials on separate days. A randomised, counter-balanced experimental design with cross-over was used across three conditions. The CON trial consisted of complete abstention from physical activity. For the ‘strength’ (STR) experimental trial participants performed a parallel back squat exercise for 5 sets of 2 repetitions with 90% 1RM; while for the ‘hypertrophy’ (HYP) experimental approach was 3 sets of 10 repetitions with 75% 1RM. Subjects attended a testing session 24 hours after each trial, consisting of CMJ, SJ, 22-cm DJ, 38-cm DJ and 40 m sprint. The 5 m sprint performance was significantly better (p &lt; 0.05) for CON group when compared to the HYP group. No other significant differences were highlighted between trials. The results indicate that performing resistance training in-line with STR and HYP the day before competition does not improve athletes’ performance. The results also suggest how a lower body STR priming activity can be implemented the day before competition without negatively impact subsequent performance. For the strength and conditioning coach, this may be a useful window to train athletes during the ‘in-season’ schedule.</p> Jacopo Terenzi Jeremy Moody Copyright (c) 2020 Jacopo Terenzi, Jeremy Moody https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-28 2020-06-28 9 3 79 89 10.34256/ijpefs20210 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Lumber Corset Wearing in Low Back Ache: A Rehabilitation Center Based Cross-sectional Study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/278 <p>Patients are most commonly advised by medical practitioners even after remaining wide range of controversy regarding wearing of lumber corset in low backache (LBA). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the potential evidence of using lumber orthosis in LBA. The study adopted 50 participants (21 male and 29 female) ages ranging between 20 to 60 years as sample selecting randomly from September to December 2015. Outcome evaluated by calculating and presenting descriptive statistics at 0.05 p-value and x<sup>2</sup> test with confidence intervals (95%), Odd Ratio (OR), and Relative Risk (RR). Age and sex were not statistically significant determinants (x<sup>2</sup> 1.172, p 0.279 and x<sup>2</sup> 0.593, p 0.441, respectively). Wearing orthosis and reduce pain in a journey found as protective (RR 0.79 and RR 0.94) also poor relationship discovered in considering OR (OR 0.242, 95% CI 0.021-2.780 and OR 0.857, 95% CI 0.164-4.467). Our data were unable to provide adequate proof that wearing lumber corset bring any clinical or therapeutic benefit in managing LBA to the patients.</p> Ahmed I Khan Md Jobair Khan AR Zaman S Hawlader MDH Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed I, Khan Md Jobair, Khan AR, Zaman S, Hawlader MDH https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-28 2020-06-28 9 3 90 98 10.34256/ijpefs20211 Tactics in tennis doubles: analysis of the formations used by the serving and receiving teams https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/277 <p>There are several tactical variants that can be used by the serving and receiving teams before the serve is struck in tennis doubles. The goal is to analyse the frequency and efficiency of the tactical variants of the serving and receiving teams in doubles at the elite level. We analysed 1067 points in 18 doubles matches in professional men's top-level tennis tournaments. Next to the Classical formation, the I-formation was used in 46 % of points when players hit the first serve and in 41 % of cases when the point started with the second serve. Both formations had very equal efficiency, both after the first and second serve. The receiving team preferred a formation where both players were positioned at the baseline (53 %) when returning the first serve, but only in 18 % of points when they faced the second serve. The results summarize strategies and specific tactical variants in current game performance of male doubles at the top tennis level and the results can help to set a default set-up of training volumes of these game situations. The coaches can use the information and adjust the practice sessions according to the tactical demands of professional tennis.</p> Kocib T Jan Carboch Cabela M Kresta J Copyright (c) 2020 Jan Carboch, Kocib T, Cabela M, Kresta J https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-06 2020-06-06 9 3 45 50 10.34256/ijpefs2026 An Analysis of Desirable Attributes for Strength and Conditioning Coaches as Perceived by Male and Female Population of Collegiate Athletes https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/276 <p>The present study aimed to suggest desirable attributes and characteristics for strength and conditioning coaches as perceived by the male and female population of collegiate athletes and statistically evaluate differences of perception between genders. Participants were 99 NCAA division I student-athletes (Male=56, Female=43) aged between 18-22 years of age, with a mean of 2.98 S&amp;C sessions per week. Participants completed an electronic questionnaire to rank the importance of 17 research-based attributes through a 5-point Likert-type-scale. Descriptive statistics revealed that overall, “knowledgeable” and “communicative” were considered the most important attributes, whereas “overall size/muscularity” and “male gender” were the least desirable. With regards to perceived importance, attributes were ranked in the following order: knowledgeable, communicative, motivator, trustworthy, give positive feedback, approachable, organised, supportive, positive, honest, confident, role model, intense, physical fitness, sense of humour, overall size/muscularity, male gender. “Male gender” as an attribute was identified as the only significant difference in perception between genders (p = .017). The observed results are consistent with previous research that highlighted how several attributes and characteristics are important for strength and conditioning coaches. Thus, these results might foster reflection and guide personal and professional development of strength and conditioning coaches.</p> Severiano Tiberi Jeremy Moody Copyright (c) 2020 Severiano Tiberi, Jeremy Moody https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 9 3 16 29 10.34256/ijpefs2023 Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test in heart failure: A Sine qua non https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/275 <p>A robust literature, over the last years, supports the indication of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Understanding exercise physiology is a crucial component of the critical evaluation of exercise intolerance. Shortness of breath and exercise limitation is often treated with an improper focus, partly because the pathophysiology is not well understood in the frame of the diagnostic spectrum of each subspecialty. A vital field and research area have been cardiopulmonary exercise test in heart failure with preserved/reduced ejection fraction, evaluation of heart failure patients as candidates for LVAD-Implantation, as well as for LVAD-Explantation and ultimately for heart transplantation. All the CPET variables provide synergistic prognostic discrimination. However, Peak VO2 serves as the most critical parameter for risk stratification and prediction of survival rate.</p> Stefanos Sakellaropoulos Dimitra Lekaditi Stefano Svab Copyright (c) 2020 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-03 2020-05-03 9 3 1 8 10.34256/ijpefs2021 Relationship between reaction time agility and linear speed of amateur male soccer players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/274 <p>This study aims to investigate the relationship between linear speed, agility and reaction time in amateur football players. Totally 15 male amateur soccer players with an average age of 20.00 ± 1.309 (years), average height 1.78 ± 0.058 (m), bodyweight average 70.05 ± 6.300 (kg) and body mass index average 22.18 ± 1.525 (kg / m2) voluntarily participated in the research. All participants completed a test battery involving linear sprinting (10, 20, 30 m), agility test (T test) and reaction time test. Fitlight TrainerTM device was used in all experiments. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between linear speed, agility and reaction time. As a result of the investigation, statistically significant positive relationships were found between the reaction time and 10 m and 20 m linear speed, between agility and 20 m and 30 m linear speed, between 10 m and 20 m linear speed and between 20 m and 30 m linear speed ( p &lt;0.05). As a result, according to this study, it can be said that features such as linear speed, agility and reaction time are related to each other in amateur soccer players.</p> Süleyman SAHIN Yahya Yildirim Duygu YILDIRIM Copyright (c) 2020 Süleyman SAHIN, Yahya Yildirim, Duygu YILDIRIM https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-04 2020-05-04 9 3 9 15 10.34256/ijpefs2022 Serve and Return in Badminton: Gender Differences of Elite Badminton Players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/272 <p>Male and female players may have different game characteristics and performance. The first two shots of a rally in badminton have tactical importance. The aim of this study is to identify players' actions and behaviors and to assess differences in serve and return between the genders on the international level. We observed 15 male and 15 female matches from top international badminton tournaments. A notational analysis was used while observing the serve type, return type and the point winner. Male players hit the backhand short serve in 91 % of points and female players started the point mostly with the forehand long serve (58 %). Both genders won 50 % of the serving points. The distribution of return type is quite equal among the drop, lob, clear, smash and net shots in female matches. While returning a short serve, the lob was 4-5 % less efficient than a net shot in both genders. Women can try to use backhand short serve more often as we found the highest efficiency of all the serve types.</p> Jan Carboch Petr Smocek Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-02-28 2020-02-28 9 3 44 48 10.34256/ijpefs2014 Systematic Review on the Associations between Objectively Measured Breaks in Sitting Time and Cardiovascular Health in Youth https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/271 <p>The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the literature on the associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health, in children and adolescents. The search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, PSYCINFO and CINAHL) through to 01 October 2019. Due to heterogeneity of the data, meta-analyses were not possible. We screened 2577 studies, and 15 studies were included, representing 9116 participants, from six different countries. Five observational studies and four experimental studies showed associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health, i.e. an increased number of breaks in sitting time was negatively associated with a cardiovascular health outcome. No associations between number of breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health outcomes were found in the six remaining studies. Studies examining associations between breaks in sitting time and cardiovascular health in children have shown some favorable associations. More epidemiological evidence is required, to inform lifestyle interventions and public health policies, which could translate into long-term implications on population health.</p> Eduarda Sousa-Sa McNeill J Pereira JR Zhang Z Okely AD Santos R Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-02-26 2020-02-26 9 3 26 43 10.34256/ijpefs2013 Postural control in male ten-pin bowlers of different level of competitiveness https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/270 <p>Ten-pin bowling is considered a highly skilled recreational activity with players demonstrating various anthropometric and physiological characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to assess both static and dynamic body balance, in ten-pin bowlers of different level of competitiveness. Thirty four ten-pin bowlers who competed at a high (Level-A, n=17) and a lower level (Level-B, n=17) as well as eighteen individuals without experience in ten-pin bowling (Non-bowlers) participated in the study. Static balance was determined based on the anteroposterior (APd) and mediolateral displacement (MLd) of the center-of-foot-pressure (CoP) that was recorded during single-leg-stance with open and close eyes as well as with open eyes and head extension. Dynamic balance was determined based on the APd and MLd of CoP as well as the normalized distances reached during execution of the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in the posterior, posterolateral and lateral directions. Significantly better dynamic balance, in terms of the distances reached during SEBT execution, was demonstrated by Level-A bowlers compared to Level-B bowlers and Non-bowlers. The differences between groups regarding APd and MLd, during both static and dynamic balance testing, were in general not significant. Our findings revealed that ten-pin bowlers who compete at a higher level demonstrate better dynamic balance ability. Sports scientists and coaches should be aware of these differences to optimize performance or distinguish ten-pin bowlers with different level of competitiveness.</p> Vasilis Stefopoulos Katerina Iatridou Dimitris Karagiannakis Dimitris Mandalidis Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 9 3 16 25 10.34256/ijpefs2012 The acute effects of intracomplex rest intervals on rate of force development and ballistic performance responses following strength-power complex training in talent-identified adolescent rugby players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/269 <p>This study investigated the effects of a strength-power complex on subsequent ballistic activity (BA) performance responses across a profile of jumps in adolescent talent-identified rugby players. Rate of force development (RFD) and BA performance responses was recorded in 22 participants over four intracomplex rest intervals (ICRI) (15s, 30s, 45s, 60s) following a complex of 3 repetitions of back squat @80% 1RM and 7 countermovement jumps (CMJs) in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Within subjects, repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on peak rate of force development (PRFD), time to peak rate of force development (TPRFD), peak force (PF), and time to a peak force (TPF). Confidence limits were set at ±90% and effect size across the sample (partial ɳ²) was calculated across P1-P4 for all jump profiles. No significant effects were observed across jump profiles or ICRI. The research confirms RFD and BA performance responses were maintained across all jump profiles and each ICRI. In contrast to previous research, the use of minimal ICRI of 15s, 30s, 45s and 60s following strength-power complex training is a practical time-efficient means of maintaining RFD and BA performance responses across jump profiles of seven jumps, which has important implications in practical coaching environments.</p> Samuel John Collins Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2020-02-25 2020-02-25 9 3 1 15 10.34256/ijpefs2011 The effect of repetition ranges on maximal strength and hypertrophy https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/268 <p>This study investigated the effects of repetition ranges with modified intensity and volume on muscle mass and maximal strength. Fourteen healthy athletes from a sports club were randomly assigned to either a low repetitions or high repetitions group. The low repetitions (LR) group performed 3 sets of 3-5 reps at 90-95% one repetition maximum (1RM) and high repetitions (HR) group performed 5 sets of 10-12 repetitions at 60-70% 1RM in specific strength training exercises for eight weeks. Muscle strength and muscle thickness measures were taken at baseline, four weeks and after the eight weeks of training. Results show LR gained better maximal strength than the HR group after the eight weeks of training in both the flat bench press and the squat test (p=0.0201 and p=0.0165 respectively). As for muscle thickness, outcomes of the quadriceps cross section thickness were almost identical between the two groups. There was no significant difference in 4 or 8 weeks (p=0.8776 and p=0.9335 respectively). Our findings suggest performing low repetitions with high intensity (load) is more beneficial for gaining maximal strength and muscle mass in short training cycles. Further research is needed to substantiate these findings in a larger cohort.</p> Adda Ghoual Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-12-23 2019-12-23 9 3 149 157 10.26524/ijpefs19415 Tennis players and their levels of self-esteem. A comparative study on psychology at an intercollegiate tennis tournament? https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/267 <p>The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between tennis playing and self-esteem, and also, some variables at an intercollegiate tennis tournament. To this and, a total of 240 students (Mage:21,05±1,78) from different universities voluntarily participated in the study. In the process, as a data collection tool, Coopersmith Self-esteem inventory by developed Coopersmith in 1967 was used in this study and it was used to determine the participants' scores of self-esteem. A comparing design was used in the present research. This design was chosen because differences between three and more parameters were investigated in the study group. Descriptive statistics and frequency analysis were calculated for determining demographic features and scores (M, SD etc.). Participants were compared using MannWhitney U &amp; Kruskal-Wallis H Tests analysis. According to the results of the research, there was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between male and female students. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem among different departments and universities. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a physical injury and not having a physical injury. On the other hand, there was a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a psychological disorder and not having a psychological disorder. This result shows that playing tennis can change the self-esteem level in a positive direction.</p> Korkmaz YIGITER Yunus ZENGIN Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-12-23 2019-12-23 9 3 142 148 10.26524/ijpefs19414 Effect of Sport Media on Social Behaviour: The Attitude and Perception Change of Chinese College Students toward the International Media Reporting the Beijing Olympics https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/266 <p>This study assessed the attitude and perceptions of college students in China before and immediately after the 2008 Beijing Olympics toward the international media's reporting of the Games and China. A total of 657 students from seven campuses eight months before the Olympics and 1,000 students from ten campuses immediately after the Olympics were randomly surveyed. The data analysis (independent t-Test) depicts that the students' attitudes and perceptions toward the international media had positively changed from the pre- to the post-Olympic surveys. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test results revealed that the survey respondents’ political preferences were the constant factors that influenced their attitude and perception change toward the international media. This study illustrates a media effect on changing the survey participants’ and their represented population’s attitude and perceptions toward the international media’s coverage of sport mega-events that is supported by the theories of mega-events and modernity, media communication and social behaviour, and social impact.</p> Charlie Song Jianhua Zhang Aiguang Zhou Stu Ryan Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 9 3 125 141 10.26524/ijpefs19413 Implementing Diverse Instructional Strategies in Adapted physical Education Program: A case study of a child with autism https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/265 <p>The number of individual with autism has been increased past decades. Along with the prevalence, diverse instruction strategies were introduced and implemented in the field of adapted physical education/activity. The purpose of this case study is investigating the effectiveness of the instructional strategies for children with disabilities. A student, nine years old boy with autism, participated in this study. Four different teaching strategies, reproductive teaching style, video modeling, system of least prompts, and chaining strategy, were implemented to teach a target skill, overhand throw. Task analysis were implemented to measure the skill performance weekly for three weeks. The result indicated that the participant showed improvement in on a skill component, T position. The participant did not showed notable improvement on overall skill performance.</p> Eun Hye Kwon Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 9 3 117 124 10.26524/ijpefs19412 Chronological Age and Training Age as Determinants of Soccer Specific Speeds https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/264 <p>The main purpose of this study was to unveil how chronological and training age or maturity of soccer players relate or affect linear sprinting speed, repeated sprinting ability (RSA), and change-ofdirection speed (CODS) performance. Competitive soccer players at the Ethiopian national soccer league level participated in the study. A total of 88 volunteered soccer players (age, 22.25±2.27 years old; training age; 9.38±2.78 years) who were free from any kind of injury at the time of data collection completed the study protocol. While age was calculated using a player’s birth certificate, fitness performance was measured using specific test protocols for each fitness element. For credibility, fitness test was conducted on a weekly basis for about five consecutive weeks and the average was taken. Bivariate correlation, partial correlation and GLM analyses were used. The bivariate correlation showed that sprinting speed (r (88) = - .254, p=.017), CODS (r (88) = -216, p.043) and RSA best (r (88) = 0.235, p=.028) significantly correlated with age (p&lt;.05). However, RSA total time, RSA average and RSA worst did not correlate with age. With training age, only CODS showed small, but significant negative correlation (r (88) = -.230, p=.031). While sprinting speed significantly correlated with maturity, other qualities that rely on the ability to produce the best performance repeatedly did not relate with age or training age. These findings suggest that speed and speed related performances depend on maturity and genetic make-up and these are less trainable qualities that may not significantly improve over time.</p> Belayneh Chekle Tefera Tadesse Zerihun Birhanu Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 108 116 10.26524/ijpefs19411 Body Composition and Somatotype in Elite Handball Players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/263 <p>As the main objective, this research work had to compare pre and post complex training effects on body composition in elite handball players in the Spanish 2nd Division. Eleven players were included in the study. Six of them formed an experimental group, and 5 of them the control group. They have undergone the complex training session which was done once a week. The following parameters were analyzed: BMI (Body Mass Index), somatotype, FM (Fat Mass), MM (Muscle mass), RM (Residual Mass), WHR (Waist to Hip Ratio), BM (Bone Mass). The results have shown that there was a not statistically significant difference after the 6 – week program neither in body composition and somatotypes. Since this program did not have a big influence on body composition we could say that complex training influences body composition should be further researched.</p> Pantovic Marko Marko Joksimovic Brkic Boris Gladysheva Anna Karisik Sinisa Alejandro Martinez-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 97 107 10.26524/ijpefs19410 Soccer Specific Fitness Differences Across the Common Playing Position Players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/262 <p>As a complex team sport, success in soccer relies on individuals’ performance, collective performance, and most importantly on team performance. In soccer, players are usually assigned to a specific position based on the demands of the position and the corresponding qualities of the players. The performance factors are varied and interrelated. As such, whether speed, change-of-direction-speed (CODS) and repeated sprinting ability (RSA) are used to discriminate different position players is not well-established. The purpose of this study was to examine how different position players are different against these parameters. The study participants included 88 soccer players at the Ethiopian National Soccer League classified into six playing positions such as centerbacks, fullbacks, holding-midfielders, attacking-midfielders, outside-midfielders and strikers. The participant players speed, CODS and RSA were measured weekly for about five weeks. The authors analyzed the collected data using one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell multiple comparisons. Results indicated that the position discriminating power of the three measures, including speed, CODS and RSA was found minimal. Among the different position players, only outside-midfielders were significantly higher performers with these qualities measured. Therefore, it was concluded that the performance difference in speed, CODS and RSA among the six position players is not a good discriminator, except for outside-midfielders, who outperformed all other position players (excluding the fullbacks) with the studied parameters.</p> Belayneh Chekle Tefera Tadesse Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 88 96 10.26524/ijpefs1949 Comparative values, correlation and classification of basketball players based on the efficiency index and expert evaluation by coaches https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/261 <p>Measuring the efficiency of athletes during competition has been a subject of interest both for experts and scientists in sports for more than a hundred years. Basketball has recognized in the 1940s how important it is to analyze efficiency indicators because these procedures allow coaches to increase their knowledge. There are two basic methods – objective and subjective – for evaluating the efficiency, or real quality of basketball players. The aim of this research is to establish the level of correlation between these two methods and to identify clusters, i.e. player hierarchy based on the results of both methods of efficiency evaluation. The sample of variables consisted of 12 basketball players who participated in the 2010 FIBA World Championships in Turkey. The subjective evaluation, also called expert evaluation, was performed by coaches of seven national teams that participated in the Championship. The objective evaluation was performed using the EEF efficiency index. The data was processed using z-scoring, the Pearson coefficient, and hierarchical cluster analysis. The Pearson coefficients of linear correlation between the efficiency index and the expert evaluation is r = 0.859 with a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.01. The cluster analysis distinguished two groups of players, which were named quality and super quality. The variance analysis showed that the probability of the clusters being equal is less than p ≤ 0.00. The research has shown that the evaluation by coaches is relevant and is fully consistent with the efficiency index formula. Also, the distinction of two groups of players by clustering is not uncommon in the basketball practice and is linked with efficiency at the given time.</p> Slobodan Simovic Bojan Matkovic Mihajlo Mijanovic Milenko Vojvodic Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 76 87 10.26524/ijpefs1948 Comparison of Estimated-1RM and 225-lb (102-kg) bench press performance between starters and non-starters among a NCAA Division I college football team https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/260 <p>The estimated one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and NFL-225 (225-lb or 102-kg) repetition test are commonly used to assess upper-body muscular strength and endurance among football players. However, little research has been focused on the relationship of these tests to playing status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between these tests and playing status in Division I football athletes. Archival data from 31 NCAA Division I football players (age: 20.1±1.4 yrs., height: 188.07 ± 5.93 cm, body mass: 112.4 ± 19.5 kg) on the 1RM Bench press test, NFL-225 test and playing status were utilized for this analysis. A one-way ANOVA was used to detect any differences in 1RM and NFL-225 performance between skill groups: big (linemen), medium (linebackers, quarterbacks, tight ends) and small (receivers, backs, and corners) (p &lt; 0.05). Playing status (starters vs. non-starters) were compared within position groups. A point bi-serial correlation was then utilized to examine the relationship in test performance between groups, as well as between starters and non-starters. Significant differences were discovered in NFL-225 test performance between big and small skill groups. Moderate-to-strong relationships between playing status and performance on the 1RM bench press (r = .660) and the NFL-225 test (r = .685) for the big skills group. The results of this study suggest that playing status and upper-body strength and endurance are strongly related for the big skills position group.</p> Cody A. Stahl Mann J.B Robert G. Lockie J. Jay Dawes Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 64 75 10.26524/ijpefs1947 Comparison of response quality and attack recognition in karate kumite between reality and virtual reality – a pilot study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/259 <p>Virtual reality (VR) is an often-used instrument in sports science research and practical training. However, VR studies with experienced athletes and sports specific tasks are rare. Furthermore, the transfer from interventions in VR into reality is even less investigated. It is possible to analyze benefits of VR using in-situ studies comparing human behavior in VR with reality. If no differences occur in the human behavior, then VR would be appropriate for interventions to improve athletes’ performance. Therefore, we let seven karate athletes respond each to ten attacks of a real attacker (reality) and a virtual attacker (VR using a Head Mounted Display) and compared the parameters “response quality” and “attack recognition” under both conditions. As attacks we chose Gyaku-Zuki (reverse punch, GZ) and Kizami-Zuki (attack with the front arm, KZ). ANOVAs and sign tests showed isolated cases of significant differences between both conditions: response quality in KZ, and attack recognition for 150ms in GZ, all p0.05). The remaining comparisons showed no significant differences (p&gt;0.05). We conclude that further research is needed but the results of the present pilot study are promising to assume that VR is suitable for applications because similar performance outcome in reality and VR were obtained.</p> Katharina Petri Peter Emmermacher Steffen Masik Kerstin Witte Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 55 63 10.26524/ijpefs1946 Physical activity monitoring devices: energy expenditure comparison in a setting of free-living activities https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/258 <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of Energy Expenditure (EE) estimation provided by 3 wearable devices [Fitbit-One (FO), Sensewear Armband (AR) and Actiheart (AC)] in a setting of free-living activities. 43 participants (24 females; 23.4±.4,5yrs) performed 9 activities: sedentary (watching video, reading), walking (on treadmill and outdoor), running (on treadmill and outdoor) and moderate-to-vigorous activities (Wii gaming, taking the stairs and playing football). Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Pearson’s correlation were calculated to assess the validity of each instrument in comparison to a portable metabolic analyser (PMA). In overall comparison MAPE’s were 7,7% for AR (r=.86; p&lt;.0001), 8,6% for FO (r=.69; P&lt;.001), and 11.6% for AC (r=.81; p&lt;.0001). These findings support the accuracy of the wearables. The AR was the most accurate in the whole protocol. However, MAPE results suggest that devices algorithms should be improved for better measure of EE during moderate-to-vigorous activities.</p> Matteo Vandoni Vittoria Carnevale Pellino Stefano Dell'Anna Elena Ricagno Giulia Liberali Claudia Bonfanti Luca Correale Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 45 54 10.26524/ijpefs1945 Assessment of throwing arm biomechanics with a motusBASEBALLTM pitching sleeve during long-toss throws and pitching in college baseball pitchers https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/257 <p>In baseball, long-toss throws are commonly used in return-to-throw programs and for general conditioning; however, the majority of these programs are based on conventional wisdom. Few studies have examined the biomechanics of long-toss throwing and the impact of throw distance. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist among commonly-used sub-maximal distance long-toss throws and mound pitching. Nineteen college baseball pitchers (19 ± 1.3 years; 88.3 ± 8.4 kg; and 73.9 ± 18.6 cm) wore a motusBASEBALL™ sleeve and sensor which measured peak elbow varus torque (VT), peak forearm angular velocity (Vmax), and peak arm-cocking angle (ACA). Each player completed five long-toss throws at distances of 27 m, 37 m, 46 m, 55 m and five pitches from a mound at regulation (18.4 m). There were no significant differences among throwing conditions for both VT and Vmax (p&lt;0.05). For ACA, there was a significant increase (approximately 12°) as the long-toss distance increased. Coaches and trainers should be aware that sub-maximal distance long-toss throws (27 - 55 m+) generate high-magnitude throwing arm biomechanics (kinetics, velocities, range of motion) that approach or even exceed those generated during pitching; precaution needs to be used when implementing long-tosses into throwing and rehabilitation programs.</p> Jeff T. Wight Brittany Dowling Jaclyn O’Loughlin Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 36 44 10.26524/ijpefs1944 A Comparison Study for the use of Mixed Training (Training with Weight and Plyometric) In the Development of the Distinctive Strength Speed as the Players of the Handball. https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/256 <p>The research aims to the comparison between the impact of the training with weight, plyometric training and mixed training and the development of the distinctive strength speed as the handball players. The experimental method was adopted due to its adequate relation with the research problem, and used the pilot curriculum of four (04) groups, three of them are experimental one is training with weight and second is plyometric training and the third for mixed training, and one is control. The study was applied on a sample of 64 players divided into 16 players of each group. The most important results are the superiority of the training program of the mixed (weights and plyometric) to other programs in the results of the tests under the search. Thus recommends that the researchers and emphasize the use of mixed training for the development of the distinctive strength speed as the players of the handball.</p> Harbach Brahim Djamel Mokrani Benzidane Houcine Ibrahim Reda Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 26 35 10.26524/ijpefs1943 Comparison of Nutrition Status and Knowledge Level of Sports Trainers and Individuals Attended with Nine-Round Fitness Sports https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/255 <p>The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the nutritional knowledge levels and nutritional status of the sports trainers and individuals doing nine-round fitness sports, and compare the relationship between two groups. One hundred individuals doing sports and 10 trainers were included in the study. A questionnaire about general demographic information, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and sporting status were applied to the participants. In addition, 1-day retrospective food consumption record was taken to evaluate the intake levels of macro and micronutrients, and The Basic Nutrition Knowledge Level for Adults (YETBID) Scale was applied to measure the nutritional knowledge of the participants. The mean energy (kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and carbohydrate (g) intakes were found to be 1930±832,6, 117,8±61,3, 88±34,5, 159±111,1 for trainers and 1465±533, 81,8±33,9, 66,6±26,4, 128±76,9 for individuals doing sports, respectively. A significant difference was found between two groups in terms of energy intakes (p=0,042) whereas, no significant difference was found between the levels of macro nutrient intakes between trainers and individuals doing sports (p&gt;0.05). According to the YETBID scores, it was found that the total score of individuals doing sports was significantly higher than trainers’ (p=0.037). It was concluded that the level of nutritional knowledge of sports trainers and individuals doing sports did not affect the nutritional status. Furthermore, dietitians should be present at sport centers and nutrition trainings should be arranged in order to prevent improper nutrition practices.</p> A. Humeyra Islamoglu I. Aycan Basoglu Aleyna A. Ozbey Feyza Tosya F. Esra Gunes Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 18 25 10.26524/ijpefs1942 Predictors of Motivation to Coach in High School Students and Adult Coaches https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/254 <p>We conducted two studies to investigate predictors of coaching motivation. In Study One, we focused on variables linked to coaching motivation and burnout in adult sports coaches. We examined high school extracurricular experiences, and coaching engagement. Positive interpersonal events experienced during high school predicted coaching motivation and a motivation. Positive interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted feelings of reduced accomplishment, while negative interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted physical exhaustion. Two aspects of coaching engagement, vigor and absorption predicted coaching motivation. Thus, coaches’ motivation was predicted by both high school and current coaching events. In Study Two, we examined whether the same high school events predicted a desire to coach in recent high school graduates. Participants retrospectively reported participation in high school sports or heavy investment in alternate activities (e.g., marching band). For both groups, identification with the activity and dedication to the activity predicted a desire to coach. A desire to coach was not predicted by high school extracurricular events. Our findings indicate that high school experiences exerted differential effects on recent graduates versus adult coaches in terms of attitudes toward coaching.</p> Merry J. Sleigh Donna Webster Nelson Alyssa M. Nelson Darren R. Ritzer Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 9 3 1 17 10.26524/ijpefs1941 Competencies and training needs and its impact on determining the professional skills of Algerian elite coaches https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/253 <p>The main purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the trainers' perceptions of competency and training needs related to professional skills in accordance with professional experience and academic education. The sample included 76 judo trainers who answered a questionnaire that included a measure that focused on the perceptions of competency and another on training needs. An exploratory factor analysis was used with the maximum probability factor (Oblimin) to determine emerging factors. A comparison of the Coaches ' concepts was made in the training experience and the academic background of the Coaches, where multiple comparisons were applied using ANOVA and Tukey. Three main areas of skills were done: skills related to annual planning; skills related to practice and competition; and personal education and training skills. Coach es' perceptions of their expertise were affected, with low-level trainers classifying themselves at lower levels of efficiency and more training needs; and higher-education Coaches in physical education were more efficient than mid-level trainers. Finally, most trainers consider them as efficient as they have indicated the training needs to be provided, which brings important feedback to the education of trainers. This suggests that trainers are an increasing their knowledge and competence in a wide range of areas that should be considered in future training of trainers programs, also to ensure the quality of education and training in the different level of physical and sports education institutes of the Algerian universities.</p> Adel BELKADI Abdelkader Benchehida Otmane Benbernou Mohamed sebbane Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 9 3 51 61 10.26524/ijpefs1936 The prevention of overtraining with the monitoring training loads: case of football https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/252 <p>The aim of this paper is to use a training load quantification tool (RPE) to evaluate if the training load programmed by the coach is appropriate to the characteristics of these footballers. The study was conducted at the football section of the Sale Sports Association, Morocco, on a sample of 8 football players who practice in the club of the Association, aged between 18 and 21 years, the study was established during a mesocycle in a period from 18/03/2019 to 20/04/2019. For the quantification of the training load (TL) we chose the (RPE) tool, where each footballer must give his own perception of the effort felt in each training session, taking into consideration also the duration of the session. This will allow us to calculate the intensity of the session estimated, on a scale from 0 to 10. Based on the results of the quantification of training load for the 8 footballers, we note that in the majority of the cases, the acute load (AL) is higher than the chronic load (CL) at the end of each week. On the other hand, for the monotony index (MI) that provides information on the negative adaptations of training and overtraining, we note that it present a high value among the majority of footballers (1.8UA&lt;2.1UA). For the average of the ratio of the training load: acute/chronic, we note that for the first three footballers the training loads are higher compared to the others. The monitoring training load help to better conceptualize the adaptations of the athlete to the training, and also allows the prediction of the performance.</p> Lotfi Zeghari Hicham Moufti Amine Arfaoui Yassir Habki Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-08-30 2019-08-30 9 3 42 50 10.26524/ijpefs1935 Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Executive Functioning, and Stress: Exploring a Process Model in Adolescents https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/251 <p>The association of trait mindfulness with emotional well-being has been found to be mediated by executive functioning. However, there is little empirical evidence on this process in adolescents. Therefore, this study tested these associations using an adolescent sample participating in a physical education yoga class. This study extended previous research by also including self-compassion and state mindfulness in addition to trait mindfulness. A prospective design employed a pilot yoga curriculum in a high school physical education class. Adolescents (N = 20) completed assessments of trait mindfulness and self-compassion at baseline, state mindfulness experienced during yoga classes over the 12 week physical education yoga class, and six indices of executive functioning and stress at the end of the 12 weeks. Path analysis was used to test the process model found by Short with the extensions of self-compassion and state mindfulness. Self-compassion directly predicted problems with activity level impulse control and indirectly predicted stress. When self-compassion did not predict specific executive functioning indicators, state mindfulness experienced in yoga predicted stress. This study contributes preliminary evidence that suggests further research into the unique effects of trait and state mindfulness as well as self-compassion on adolescent cognitive and affective outcomes. Results support the use of contemplative practices, such as yoga, in adolescent physical education as a strategy to boost emotion regulation processes.</p> Sarah Ullrich-French Anne E. Cox Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 9 3 32 41 10.26524/ijpefs1934 Mindfulness with Collegiate Gymnasts: Effects on Flow, Stress and Overall Mindfulness Levels https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/250 <p>The physical and psychological demands of sports can place an athlete under a variety of stressors. Subsequently, the way in which athletes deal with such stressors can positively or negatively affect their performance. Flow is defined as a type of experience where one is completely engaged in an activity and optimally functioning. Recently, an increase in mindfulness and acceptance based approaches have been utilized as a means to augment negative emotions in sport and many have suggested a link between mindfulness and flow. Thus, if mindfulness can positively influence flow, perhaps performance can also be positively affected. There has also been a need to determine optimal intervention lengths to successfully teach mindfulness practices within sports teams. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a mindfulness training program on mindfulness scores, dispositional flow scores, and perceived stress scores within a population of Division I female collegiate gymnasts. Results from a repeated measures ANOVA indicated that athletes who participated in the mindfulness training demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the dispositional flow dimensions of loss of self-consciousness and the autotelic experience. These results suggest that mindfulness may influence factors associated with athletic performance.</p> Nicholas P. Cherup Zeljka Vidic Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-08-23 2019-08-23 9 3 19 31 10.26524/ijpefs1933 Curriculum Development and Review in Sports Academy Setting: Proposing Models and Methodologies https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/249 <p>In recent years, the curriculum has become a widely appealing construct within the global discourses of quality assessment and continual improvement. However, the literature in this field reveals a lack of clarity and consensus regarding its meaning and other technical issues related to its development and review, particularly in the sports academy setting. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of current knowledge in this area through broadly exploring a range of dimensions underpinning the concept of curriculum, including its definitions, elements, processes, and the resultant pedagogical implications. Besides, this review article proposes a model to facilitate the development and review of the curriculum in Ethiopian sports academy programs and provides designers, youth coaches, and administrators with a practical approach for designing and implementing the curriculum. This proposed model seeks to support the Ethiopian sports academies in systematically developing and reviewing curriculum, and using that assessment data to trigger further improvement of the program. Moreover, a systemic view of sports academy is suggested to create broader insights about key ingredients of quality, and identify issues that impinge on curriculum decision-making. The article concludes by summarizing the results of the analyses and offering implications for practices.</p> Tefera Tadesse Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-08-20 2019-08-20 9 3 7 18 10.26524/ijpefs1932 Imbalance of n6/n3 fatty acids in the training period and after competition in cross-country Skiers https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/248 <p>The aim of the study was to investigate the level of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in athletes into the training period and after endurance race (n=15 high-trained male cross-country skiers, real members of national skiing team). The PUFAs in plasma was determined by the gas-liquid chromatography method. Results demonstrate a deficiency of plasma level of the n-3 PUFA of the almost all skiers during the training period. Competition activity modified the essential PUFA profile in blood across more twice increase of the n-3 docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) (p=0.112) and n-3 alpha-linolenic (ALA) (p=0.048) levels and decrease n-6 PUFA relative to baselines, which expressed in a decrease in n6/n3 ratio (p=0.017). Relationships between n3/n-6 ratio and base heart rate, diastolic pressure and Maximal oxygen uptake, show on the significant role essential PUFAs in regulation of the cardiovascular system in cross-country skiers.</p> Aleksandra Lyudinina Evgeny Boyko Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-08-15 2019-08-15 9 3 1 6 10.26524/ijpefs1931 Effect of Psychological Need-Supportive Summer Camp: FIT-Dawg Girls Summer Camp https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/247 <p>Physical activity (PA) is a major factor related to obesity risk. Research has shown PA interventions among adolescents to be moderately successful in short-term but limited to longer-term. Self-determination theory (SDT) postulates that a psychological need-supportive environment (i.e. one that supports competence, autonomy, and social relatedness) is effective in maintaining volitional motivation which can lead to sustained positive behavioral changes including PA. Although research has supported the central tenets of the SDT, there is limited evidence examining whether a summer camp intervention can sustain improvements in PA motivation and behavior. Thus, this study examined the acute and 12-weeks longer-term effectiveness of a five-day psychological need-support centered summer camp on healthy weight and overweight adolescent girls’ weight management behaviors. A single-group case series study with pre-, post, and 12-week follow-up-test analyses. A sample comprised 42 (M<sub>age</sub> = 11.70±1.12) adolescent females. Exercise motivation, PA intention, and PA and dietary behaviors were measured. The findings showed a between-group effect on daily steps (F(1, 19) = 15.83, <em>p</em> = .001,η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = .46), moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (<em>F</em>(1, 19) = 4.58, p = .046, η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = .19), energy intake (<em>F</em>(1, 19) = 7.23, p = .013, η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = .27), PA intention (<em>F</em>(2, 18) = 6.25, p = .024, η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = .28), intrinsic motivation (F(2, 18) = 6.25, p = .024, η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = .28), and amotivation (<em>F</em>(2, 18) = 16.25, <em>p</em> &lt; .001, η<sub>p</sub><sup>2</sup> = .54). A need-supportive summer camp may be especially effective in improving PA motivation and behavior in overweight girls.</p> Megha Vishwanathan Mika Manninen Sophie Waller Marlyse Sifre Ellen E. Evans Sami Yli-Piipari Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 9 3 51 63 10.26524/ijpefs1927 Diagnosis of Percentages of Progress in Weight Training and its Relationship to the Dynamic Development of Muscle Strength of Football Players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/246 <p>Muscle strength is one of the most important elements of fitness that must be available to football players. For a long period of time the weight training has been the subject of controversy among the specialists in the preparation and training of football players, the scientific researches has settled this controversy, where most of the results indicated that weight training has become necessary for the development of different types of muscular strength (maximum force – the special force of speed – endurance power). In fact the Algerian football sport lacks weight training programs and how to plan and evaluate the level of development of muscular strength during the training program with scientific bases and methods to avoid muscle inflation and increase muscle mass that can affect skill performance. The researchers' study note that there is a great detour of football players around the muscle strengthening rooms without a formal training program, which may lead to an increase in muscle inflation. So that the researchers decided to design a weight training program ,and diagnosing the percentage of progression and its relation to the dynamics of muscle strength development of different muscle groups and increasing muscle inflation as much as required for football players under 21 years of research experimental sample.</p> Koutchouk Sidi Mohamed - keroum Mohamed Mokrani Djamel Sebbane Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-19 2019-06-19 9 3 42 50 10.26524/ijpefs1926 Effectiveness of plyometric exercises to improve muscular strength and digital achievement for students in shot put https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/245 <p>To identify the effectiveness of plyometric exercises to improve muscular strength and achievement in shot put event by students (20-22 years old). The researchers used an experimental method; the sample was formed by students belonging to the institute of physical education &amp; sports, University of Mostaganem (Algeria). Thus it was the application of the experimental method was applied on a sample of third-year students (males) of 45 students divided into two groups, first control group of 22 students and an experimental group of 23 students. While the tests used were (strength test, achievement test). After the treatment of the results by statistical means, and through these results it have been reached several conclusions of them, plyometric Exercises to develop muscular strength and achievement in shot put [discussion significant difference (*p≤0.05)]. And best improve of the experimental sample based on plyometric exercises compared to the control sample, which rely more on the technical side only in shot put event.</p> Belaidouni Mustapha Benzidane Houcine Ahmed Benklaouz Touati Mokrani Djamel Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 9 3 36 41 10.26524/ijpefs1925 Physical Activity Level among Pre-University Students of Mangaluru City: A Cross-Sectional Study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/244 <p>Physical activity is one of the best health promotion activities that enhance the overall health status, mental status and performance. There is decline in the physical activity by ten folds since last four decades among adolescence worldwide. Educational institutions have a prime role in enhancing physical activity among school going children’s through schedule classes. This study was conducted to determine the level of physical activity among the Pre-University students of Mangaluru city. The study also aimed to determine the nutritional status of the students using weight for height. Cross-sectional study was conducted in selected Pre-University colleges of Mangaluru city. The study period was from January 2019 to April 2019. In total 572 samples were col lected. YPAQ for physical activity and Likert scale questionnaire for college based program were used to collect a data. Overall 50.5% of the students were found to be physically active in this study. In-house factors like type of college, type of streams (Science/Commerce/Arts), mode of transportation and personal factors like gender, gym workouts, household activities were significantly associated (p&lt;0.05) with the level of physical activity respectively. Student’s regular participation in physical activity at college level was significantly associated (p&lt;0.05) and were 3.76 times more active than students who did not participate. Regular physical activity schedule at the college level and motivation to participate along with studies will significantly improve the overall performance of the students.</p> Karuna Neupane Mackwin Kenwood Dmello Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-08 2019-06-08 9 3 29 35 10.26524/ijpefs1924 Can startle response magnitudes be used as a tool to predict sportive capacities? A comparative study between healthy young adults and athletes. https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/243 <p>The acoustic startle reflex (ASR) is an intense reaction that involves the contraction of muscle groups in response to an unexpected stimulus. We proposed that an ASR measurement may be used to select physical characteristics among healthy people, including athletes. To find the relationship between the ASR and physical conditioning level, we designed a study to perform ASR measurements, anthropometric measurements, neuromuscular conjugation exercises, strength test, and flexibility test. We studied young adults into 4 groups: male-control, male-athlete, female-control, and female-athlete. Our results showed how the startle amplitude was decreased in athletes compared with controls. In most of the anthropometric parameters, there were differences attending to gender in control groups, but these differences diminished in athletes. In addition, some fitness values were correlated with the latency of the muscle response and with the prepulse inhibition. This study demonstrates that regular practice of a sport, aside from causing changes in common fitness variables, also promotes changes in ASR parameters. In some way, the intense body training stimulates the brain reorganization to enhance some responses related to adapt the ASR. With this study, we are opening a field for those interested in finding out new instruments to discriminate athletes.</p> Sebastian Hormigo Carlos Moreno Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-07 2019-06-07 9 3 14 28 10.26524/ijpefs1923 Fact and Fiction in youth Cardiorespiratory Fitness https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/242 <p>Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) reflects the integrated ability to deliver oxygen from the atmosphere to the skeletal muscles and to utilize it to generate energy to support muscle activity during exercise. Peak oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2</sub>) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth CRF. It is well-documented that in youth peak VO<sub>2</sub> increases with sex-specific, concurrent changes in a range of age- and maturity status-driven morphological and physiological covariates with the timing and tempo of changes specific to individuals. However, a recent resurgence of interest in predicting peak VO<sub>2</sub> from field test performances and the persistence of fallacious interpretations of peak VO<sub>2</sub> in 1:1 ratio with body mass have obfuscated general understanding of the development of CRF. Moreover, as spurious relationships arise when ratio-scaled data are correlated with health-related variables the use of this scaling technique has confounded the relationship of youth CRF with indicators of current and future health. This paper reviews the extant evidence and concludes that the interpretation of youth CRF and the promotion of young people’s health and well-being should be founded on scientific facts and not on fictions based on flawed methodology and specious interpretation of data.</p> Neil Armstrong Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 9 3 8 13 10.26524/ijpefs1922 Investigation of exercise intensity in competitive roundnet/spikeball https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/241 <p>The game of roundnet (spikeball) is a trend sport that has gained much popularity in leisure time activity in recent years. However, no scientific studies dealing with this trend sport are published yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological demand of male roundnet players during a roundnet match. Therefore, 12 experienced male roundnet players were recruited. In a pre-experimental test, all participants conducted a ramp-based treadmill test with spirometric measurements. Further, lactate concentrations, velocity and heart rate (HR) were measured. In a subsequent field test, participants conducted a roundnet game in accordance with the official rules. During that field test, the following parameters were measured: Average and maximum HR, lactate concentrations, step count, steps per minute, playing time and rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Results of the pre-experimental test reveal that participants reached a maximum running speed of 5.1±0.2 m/s, a maximum HRof 190.4±7.2 bpm and a VO2max of 55.8±4.2 ml/min/kg. Results of the field test showed that participants reached a maximum HR of 159.7±7.9 bpm corresponding to 83.9±3.6% of the participant’s maximum HR. Average HR was 133.6±9.4 bpm corresponding to 70.1±4.2% of the participant’s maximum HR. Participants reached a mean lactate concentration of 1.2±0.2 mmol/l and a RPE score of 13.2±1.2. The mean playing time of one set was 10.8±0.8 minutes. On average, 790.5±125.2 steps were measured during one set equaling 73.1±11.6 steps per minute. To conclude, this study first time presents game characteristics and the physiological demand of the trend sport roundnet. Results indicate that the physiological demand can be described as moderate as none of the measured parameters reaches disproportionately high values.</p> Nils-Oliver Grimm Fabian Tomschi Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-06-06 2019-06-06 9 3 1 7 10.26524/ijpefs1921 Effect of Awris Traditional Dances on Health Related Physical Fitness Traits among High School Students in Ethiopia https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/240 <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Awris traditional dance Tigray regional state on health related physical fitness traits among high school students. To achieve the purpose of this study, 40 high school students were selected randomly. And their age ranged between 15 and 17 years. The selected participants were categorized into experimental and control group with twenty (n=20) subjects in each. The experimental group performed traditional dances for a period of 16 weeks three days per week whereas participants in the control group were informed to follow their usual daily activity. All participants were tested on selected criterion measures on muscular strength, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance and body composition prior to and after the 16 weeks of the training period. The data pertaining to the variables in this study were statistically examined by using SPSS statistical software version 25. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation were found in order to get the basic idea of the data distribution. Independent t- test was employed for finding whether there was any statistically significant pre-test to post-test mean differences in their respective variables of each group. Level of significant was set at 0.05. Following the 16-weeks traditional dance training, significant change was observed on muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance, but there was no significant improvement in flexibility and body composition as compare the experimental groups with the control group. Therefore it can be concluded that Awris traditional dance training program can notably improve muscular strength and cardiovascular endurance of high school students.</p> Mulay Gebretensay Soumitra Mondal Mathivanan D Mahmud Abdulkader Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 126 130 10.26524/ijpefs19115 Sport Education and Physical Activity: Recommendations for Maximizing the Model https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/239 <p>There is a need for physical education to address two important concerns affecting American youth: the worsening social decline of communities and schools, and the increase of childhood obesity and sedentary related illnesses. This article explores solutions to the dual challenge of increasing students' moral and social development, and increasing students physical activity levels in physical education while teaching within the Sport Education Model.</p> Colin G Pennington Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 122 123 10.26524/ijpefs19114 A Required College Wellness Course Changes Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to Physical Activity https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/238 <p>We examined effects of a required college health and wellness course on students’ physical activity (PA) attitudes and behaviors. A survey based on models of behavior change was emailed (September 2016 – May 2017) to all students at a liberal arts college. Of 408 students who responded, 217 had completed the course and 191 had not. Students who had taken the course reported more confidence in their ability to improve their physical fitness; found more encouragement from cues to action; and met recommended guidelines for weekly PA more than students who had not taken the course. Compared to males, females had less confidence in their ability to increase PA and improve fitness and overall health. Females perceived barriers to PA as more discouraging and cues to action as less encouraging. Data showed a required college health and wellness course altered students’ PA attitudes and behaviors.</p> Anna Katherine Leal Edien Fernandini Brandon Jackson Madeleine Mason David Elmer Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 110 121 10.26524/ijpefs19113 Research on the Motivation and Attitude of College students' Physical Education in Taiwan https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/237 <p>College students' physical education plays an important role in physical activity and cultivates the concept of independent health management. At present, what kind of learning attitude do Taiwan college students face in physical education? What motivation does the student influence the attitude of the physical education? What is the relevance? All of the above are the purpose of this study. The research method adopts the questionnaire survey method, and the survey data adopts descriptive statistical analysis, independent sample t test, single factor variance analysis, LSD post hoc comparison method, and typical correlation analysis. Research results: 1. The different background variables of Taiwanese college students are that the main motivation factor of physical education is to obtain good health fitness for "physical health". 2. Taiwanese college students have different background variables. They all think that the "cognitive learning" of physical education is the main factor of attitude, that is, the knowledge about health care and sports skills. 3. There is a positive correlation between learning motivation and learning attitude (ρ=.90). Learning motivation is one of the important factors affecting learning attitude. Research conclusions: 1. The factors of Taiwanese male and female college students' motivation for learning in physical education are mainly based on "physical health". 2. Freshmen have higher motivations and learning attitudes in physical education than second-grade to fourth-grade. 3. Taiwan female college students average 1 or 2 times per week, male college students have the most athletes 2 to 3 times per week, more than 90% of college students like sports. 4. There is a positive correlation between learning motivation and learning attitude, indicating that the stronger the attribute of learning motivation "physical health", the higher the student's learning attitude. 5. Satisfying students' motivation for learning helps students to learn positively. 6. Another important task of the college physical education class is to prepare students for future lifelong sports.</p> Wei-Yang Huang Chih-Chao Hsu Jung-Yi Lee Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 95 109 10.26524/ijpefs19112 Entering secondary physical education student- teachers’ expectations of their program of initial teacher education https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/236 <p>The views and beliefs held by entering student teachers can be shaped by their expectations of teaching and initial teacher education. Whilst interest has investigated student teachers’ expectations little exists in physical education. This qualitative paper examines the entering expectations held by 24 PGCE secondary physical education student teachers. Informed by the published literature on student teacher expectations and the specific purposes of this study, data were collected from participants on the first day of their initial teacher education course in the form of an open-ended survey that included eleven items. Participants discussed a range of expectations related to course content, pedagogy, course structure and staffing responsibilities and contributions. Student teachers should be encouraged to explore their expectations and consider which specific elements align with initial preconceptions concerning their teacher education.</p> Gary D Kinchin Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 85 94 10.26524/ijpefs19111 Comparison of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Prediction Models in Young Adults Running head: Comparison of VO2 max Prediction Models https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/235 <p>to compare the predictive accuracy of regression models for a non-consecutive day VO<sub>2 </sub>max/Wingate testing protocol and a same day testing protocol. Participants (N=23) completed a treadmill GXT and Wingate cycle test. Participants (n=12) completed testing on non-consecutive days (NON) and (n=11) the same day (SAME). VO<sub>2</sub> max (L/min) and peak power (PP) were collected. Linear regression analysis of NON revealed R2=0.808 and prediction equation Ŷ=1.499+0.004X and SAME showed R2=0.861 and prediction equation Ŷ=1.407+0.003X. NON standard error of estimate (SEE) and standard error of estimate percent (SEE %) were 0.62 L/min and 15.23%, respectively. SAME SEE and SEE% were 0.34 L/min and 10.98%, respectively. These results indicate PP obtained the same day of VO2max testing is a better predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness. Similarly, the SAME model is more accurate according to SEE and SEE%. This may be due to diminished effects of training adaptations that could occur 2-7 days between testing sessions during the NON testing protocol in healthy, active young adults.</p> Elizabeth Ann Tanner James W. Navalta Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 79 84 10.26524/ijpefs19110 30 Minutes of Acute Moderate-Intensity Exercise Prior to a High Fat Meal Does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Postmenopausal Women https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/234 <p>There is an increased instance of circulating triglycerides among older adults which could lead to atherosclerosis; therefore, we sought to determine if 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in postmenopausal women. Five postmenopausal women (59.8 years), participated in an exercise trial consisting of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR), heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lipids collected. Following exercise participants ingested a high-fat meal (62 grams CHO, and 57 grams fat) and rested for four hours. Lipid levels were collected at 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post-feeding. The control trial did not exercise and were given the high fat meal followed by rest. A randomized cross-over design was utilized, in which all subjects participated in the control and exercise trial. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials. PPT increased from pre-exercise in both trials (p&lt;0.05) (pre-feeding 88.4±26.7 con. 93.6±36.8 ex., 1hr 141±51.7 con. 139±65.4 ex., 2hrs 195±32.7 con. 166±82.4 ex., 3hrs 203±52.2 con. 185±78.1 ex., 4hrs 179±22.4 con. 193±50.5 ex). Glucose values were similar between trials; peaking post-feeding followed by a gradual return to baseline in both trials (p&lt;0.05) (prefeeding 86±5.5 con. 84.6±5.8 ex., 1hr 117±11.3 con. 125±23.5 ex., 2hrs 104±4.1 con., 113±16.7 ex., 3hrs 97.4±6.3 con., 88.6±11.6 ex., 4hrs 87.6±6.7 con., 81.2±9 ex). 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise does not attenuate PPT in postmenopausal women.</p> Nathaniel Glen Bodell Trevor Gillum Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 72 78 10.26524/ijpefs1919 Characterizing Steady-State Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses of Recreational Climbers During Motorized Treadmill Climbing https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/233 <p>Given that the popularity of indoor climbing exceeds that of outdoor climbing, health professionals need a better understanding of how these indoor climbing activities can be used to prescribe exercise. The primary goal of this study was to characterize both cardiovascular and metabolic responses of motorized treadmill climbing with respect to thresholds for heart rate as a percent of maximum (%HR) and metabolic equivalents (METs). Additionally, this study used these data to generate MET and energy expenditure (EE) prediction equations for prescription purposes. Methods: Twenty non-competitive recreational climbers (16 men; 4 women) were recruited to climb six combinations of “slow” and “fast” climbing speed (4.6-9.1 m/min) across three treadmill grades: vertical (90°), overhang or negative incline (85-80°), positive incline (95-100°). A portable metabolic system was worn by climbers during testing to measure HR and oxygen uptake (VO2), the latter of which was converted to EE and METs using standard formulae. Mean HR% and MET values were compared to intensity thresholds (65%, or 3 and 6 METs) using one-sample t-tests, while standard multiple regression techniques were used to predict EE and METs from a pool of variables (climbing treadmill speed and grade, body mass, gender. Results: HR% (70.0-85.4%) was &gt;65% at all test conditions (P&lt;0.01) and mean MET values exceeded the 3-MET threshold and was ≥6-MET threshold at all conditions (6.0-8.5 METs; P&lt;0.01). Multiple prediction equations for both EE (R2=0.81; SEE=±0.83 kcals/min; P&lt;0.001) and METs (R2=0.73; SEE=±0.6 METs; P&lt;0.001) included speed, grade, and gender. Conclusions: The vigorous metabolic intensity for motorized treadmill climbing (≥6 METs) in this study was clearly sufficient to promote positive health and metabolic fitness in healthy adults. In addition, health professionals can use the EE and MET prediction equations to prescribe specific motorized treadmill climbing intensities to clients, as well as generate climbing-specific testing protocols.</p> Daniel Paul Heil Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 58 71 10.26524/ijpefs1918 The Relationship between body mass index (BMI) and sedentary behavior is mediated by negative peer interaction in boys. https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/232 <p>To determine if self-reported negative social interaction mediates the relationship between sedentary behavior and body mass index (BMI) percentile in boys. Twelve overweight/obese (&lt;85<sup>th</sup> BMI percentile) and 14 non-overweight (&lt;85<sup>th</sup> BMI percentile) boys (10.5 ± 1.5 years old) completed surveys assessing overt peer victimization and relational victimization. Children were individually given access to a gymnasium with physical activity equipment and sedentary alternatives for 30 minutes. Children could play with the equipment in any pattern they wished and the amount of time allocated to sedentary activities (sitting time) was recorded. Overt and relational victimization were moderately and positively associated with BMI percentile (r ≥ 0.40, p ≤ 0.04) and sitting time (r ≥ 0.40, p ≤ 0.05) and sitting time was positively associated with BMI percentile (r = 0.4, p = 0.05). After controlling for overt and relational victimization the correlation between sitting time and BMI percentile was non-significant (r ≤ 0.28, p ≥ 0.18). The positive relationship between BMI percentile and sedentary behavior was mediated by measures of negative social interaction.</p> Jacob E Barkley Gregory S Farnell Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-28 2019-03-28 9 3 131 138 10.26524/ijpefs1917 Styles of Reasoning in a Sensorimotor Operation in Humans https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/231 <p>The author presents an attempt at joining the concepts of intelligence by R.B. Cattell and attention by R.M. Nideffer, and including them into a system of a motor operation production, from stimulus reception through movements’ execution. Such a system may be presented as the movements’ management matrix. Joining the two-dimensional concept of attention by Nideffer and one-dimensional concept of intelligence by Cattell results with creation of a three-dimensional model of intellect. The latter makes the central component of the “main production unit” of a motor operation, consisting of three “working” mechanisms (attention, intellect, and foresight) and two auxiliary ones (motivation and decision). Author presents the model of a three-dimensional intellect in the context of the movements’ management matrix and the modalities’ ladder, based on theory by N.A. Bernstein.</p> Waclaw Petrynski Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-27 2019-03-27 9 3 49 57 10.26524/ijpefs1916 Biological maturation of Portuguese rhythmic gymnasts in different competition levels of performance https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/230 <p>The aims of the present study were: (1) identify and compare the biological maturity in Portuguese gymnasts across competitive levels; (2) investigate how morphological variables and training volume behave in the different status and indicators of maturity and (3) determinate if the maturity status influences the competitive performance. The sample (n=164) consisted of three competition levels (Base, 1st division and Elite) from Portugal. Anthropometric measurements and body composition were performed. For analysis of biological maturation, the sexual and somatic maturation were evaluated. For the statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, Pearson correlation and Linear Regression were used. In total, 63.4% of gymnasts had not yet reached menarche and the higher competition level, lower the number of gymnasts with menarche. On mean, all groups had reached the age at peak height velocity. The higher the competition level, higher the chronological age and age at peak height velocity. Thus, the maturation indicators showed a delay in pubertal development in all competition levels and the elite gymnasts seem present a later pubertal development. The chronological age, the values of body mass, height, BMI and body fat increased with the maturity status according all maturity indicators. However, gymnasts with different maturity status revealed similar training volume. Finally, the maturational status explained 11.5% of competition success with higher advantage in the competitive performance to prepubertal gymnasts. Thus, the premenarcheal status and a higher age at peak height velocity contribute to performance in Rhythmic Gymnastics.</p> Amanda Batista Rui Garganta Lurdes Ávila-Carvalho Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-30 2019-03-30 9 3 38 48 10.26524/ijpefs1915 The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on the Level of Musculoskeletal Fitness of Male Students with Visual Impairment or Blindness https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/229 <p>The present research aims to know how much impact the physical fitness program may have on the level of musculoskeletal fitness of blind male students (15-18 years old). The experimental method was used on a sample of 18 students with visual impairment or blindness at the Visually Impaired Center. These students were chosen randomly, we used various tests, namely the push-ups, sit ups tests and sit and reach test, and the results obtained indicated that there are statistically significant differences between the pretests and posttests, in favor of the posttests, for the level of musculoskeletal fitness of students with visual impairment or blindness.</p> CHEIKH Yaaqoub ZENAGUI Sefiane OUHASSINE Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-03-30 2019-03-30 9 3 33 37 10.26524/ijpefs1914 The relationship between some physical fitness characteristics and body composition of elite wrestlers https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/228 <p>The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between elite wrestlers' body composition and static strength, anaerobic power and static balance characteristics. Eleven elite male freestyle wrestlers (age = 18.8 ± 1.1 years, height = 170.9 ± 5.3 cm, weight = 75.2 ± 9.6 kg, BMI = 25.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2) who struggle in Turkish Wrestling Super League from Bursa Metropolitan Municipality Sports Club, voluntary participated. Subjects’ height, weight, body composition, balance (Peri Length 443.1 ± 140.6 cm, Aria Gap P 20.6 ± 12.9 cm), anaerobic power (106.3 ± 16.8 kg/m/sec), back strength (140.2 ± 30.7 kg) and grip strength (47.6 ± 6.4 kg) test were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient were performed to determine the relationship between variables. In conclusion, anaerobic power, strength and balance are related to body composition components such as height, body weight, BMI, arm and leg fat %, muscle mass and body weight.</p> Yahya Yıldırım Ramiz Arabacı Hüseyin Topçu Tonguç Vardar Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-01-20 2019-01-20 9 3 25 32 10.26524/ijpefs1913 The Influence of Bicycle Geometry on Time-Trial Positioning Kinematics and Markers of Performance https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/227 <p>Studies have previously documented how changes in cycling body kinematics are related to submaximal energetics and power output, as well as cycling performance, but few have focused specifically on how body kinematics will vary with changes in bicycle geometry. This study sought to describe kinematic changes resulting from the systematic change of several bicycle geometry variables: Trunk angle (“low” and “high” positions), seat-tube angle (76° and 80°), saddle tilt angle (0° to -10°), saddle sitting position (middle or nose), as well as two types of saddles. Methods: Well-trained cyclists were kinematically evaluated across specific combinations of geometry variables using a modified cycle ergometer at a standard relative power. Standard two dimensional sagittal-view kinematics from the left side were used to summarize a collection of kinematic variables: Trunk angle, hip angle (HA), knee angle, pelvic tilt angle, and two “composite” angles called body position and pelvic position (PP). Finally, each trial was also evaluated for frontal area (FA; m2) from stationary digital photography. Data were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVA (a=0.05) to evaluate change in kinematics between trials, as well as regression analysis to determine predictability of performance markers (HA and FA) from the collection of geometry and kinematic variables. Results: Changing trunk angle had the greatest impact on other kinematic variables, while saddle type had no influence. Regression showed that geometry variables could explain 75-85% of the variability in either HA or FA, while 78-79% of the variation in HA and 83- 84% of FA was explained by PP alone. Conclusions: The composite kinematic measure PP was generally a better predictor of both HA and FA than any combination of geometry variables. These results can serve as a starting point for understanding the interactions between bicycle geometry and body kinematics, both of which are important determinants of power generation and aerodynamic drag.</p> D.P. Heil Robert Pickels Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-01-20 2019-01-20 9 3 11 24 10.26524/ijpefs1912 Can Collegiate Hockey Players Accurately Predict Regional and Total Body Physiologic Changes throughout the Competitive Season? https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/226 <p>A collegiate athlete’s body composition can fluctuate due to factors such as nutrition, sleep, and training load. As changes in body composition can affect an athlete’s level of performance, it may be beneficial if athlete’s can accurately predict these changes throughout a season. The purpose of this study was to determine how well a group of 23 male collegiate hockey players (age = 22.44 ± 1.16 years, height = 181.30 ± 6.99 cm, weight = 86.41 ± 8.32 kg) could predict their regional and total body lean and fat tissue mass throughout a hockey season (September to March). Total body, trunk, lower body, and upper body compositional changes were measured at the beginning and at the end of the competitive season using dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA). At the end of the season, a questionnaire was completed by each participant to explore how they perceived their body composition changes (losses or gains in lean tissue and fat mass) throughout the season. Overall, players had a difficult time identifying actual changes in lean tissue and fat mass throughout the season. Upper body fat and lean tissue changes were perceived most accurately, while perceptions of body fat were related to android adiposity but not visceral adiposity. These findings suggest that some regional areas of body composition changes may happen without being noticed. For strength and conditioning coaches, if athletes are made aware of these changes before they become exaggerated, proper dietary, and training adaptations can be made to enhance performance.</p> Nathan A. Chiarlitti Patrick Delisle-Houde Harlan R. Orr Ryan ER. Reid Ross E. Andersen Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2019-01-20 2019-01-20 9 3 1 10 10.26524/ijpefs1911 Effect of a-Week Summer Camp on the Hopelessness and Self-Esteem of the University Students Attending Sport Sciences Faculty https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/225 <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of participation in a 1-week summer camp on the hopelessness and self-esteem of the university students attending Sport Sciences Faculty. Participants were 36 university students assigned to experiment group using a random procedure. Coopersmith Self-esteem and Beck Hopelessness Scales were completed at the beginning and end of the summer camp by designed the university. The obtained data were analysed in the SPSS 18.0 program and the significance level was taken as 0.05. The descriptive statistics, independent simple t test, paired simple t test and Pearson correlation were used for analyse the data in the study. According to the results of the research, no significant difference was observed in the comparison of the hopelessness and self-esteem levels between pre and post-test. In addition, there was a significant difference in the hopelessness level of male and female students but any significant difference was not observed in terms of self-esteem. There was a significant relationship between hopelessness and self-esteem pre and post-test. These result shows that a 1-week summer camp cannot change the hopelessness or self-esteem level. However, as the self-esteem rises, the rate of despair decreases whereas as the despair rises, the selfesteem decreases.</p> Korkmaz YİĞİTER Hakan TOSUN Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 9 3 42 49 10.26524/ijpefs1845 Internal load in elite young soccer players during a whole season according to playing positions https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/224 <p>The aims of this study were 1) to compare the internal load, measured as session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE), between training sessions and official matches among playing positions in young elite soccer players and 2) to analyze the s-RPE association between training and official match-play. Nineteen young elite soccer players who competed in the Spanish First Division Under-19 Championship participated in this study. Internal load was registered during 120 training sessions and during 30 official matches. Only the players who participated in all the weekly sessions and played at least 70 min were included in the further analysis. No significant differences (P &gt; 0.05, ES = -0.57/0.62) among playing positions were found in the s-RPE registered by soccer players in training sessions, official matches nor in the total sessions. On the other side, higher s-RPE was observed during trainings in comparison to matches in each playing position (P &lt; 0.001, ES = 5.51-30.77). However, no association was observed between training s-RPE and match s-RPE for the whole of the players (P = 0.60, r = 0.04), nor for each specific playing positions (P = 0.29-0.89, r = -0.11/0.16). These findings could be useful for coaches in order to plan the distribution of the weekly training load. Nonetheless, it is also suggested that internal load monitoring cannot be confidently used, in isolation, as a tool to detect differences in the matchplay demands, attending to playing positions, in young soccer players. Thus, the use of both internal (i.e., s-RPE) and external (i.e., global positioning system measures) load is suggested to manage the training and match load and to prescribe the training sessions appropriately.</p> Daniel Castillo Javier Raya-González Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 9 3 36 41 10.26524/ijpefs1844 A Comparison of the Technique of the 180° Cutting Maneuver Performed on Grass and on a Hardwood Floor https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/223 <p>The 180º cutting maneuver (also known as the 505 drill) is commonly seen in field and court sports, and it consists of a 15 m run up to a turning point, followed by a timed stop and 180º change of direction for 5 m. The purpose of this study was to determine the most effective joint movements, limb velocities and body positions to perform the 180º cutting maneuver. Additionally, the study compared the kinematics of the 505 drill performed indoors while wearing running shoes and outdoors while wearing cleats. For this study, twelve athletes executed the 505 drill indoors while wearing running shoes, and twelve executed the 505 drill outdoors while wearing cleats. Fifty nine independent variables were measured for each athlete and compared to the athlete’s time to complete the test. Mean test time was 2.27 seconds for the indoor group and a significantly lower 2.47 s for the outdoor group. Correlation analysis and forward stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed on both groups to determine which variables were significantly related to test time. Trunk forward lean at push off of the jab leg was most highly correlated to test time for the indoor athletes (r= -0.887), however, flexion at maximum flexion of the jab knee was most highly correlated to test time for the outdoor group (r= - 0.748). Outdoor athletes could benefit from assuming a lower and more flexed body position similar to the indoor athletes and attain a greater degree of trunk lean at jab leg touchdown.</p> Brad Gerbrandt Marion Joyce Alexander David Telles-Langdon Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 9 3 22 35 10.26524/ijpefs1843 A Comparison of Physiological Demand between Self-Propelled and Motorized Treadmill Exercise https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/222 <p>There are a wide range of options for individuals to choose from in order to engage in aerobic exercise; from outdoor running to computer controlled and self-propelled treadmills. Recently, self-propelled treadmills have increased in popularity and provide an alternative to a motorized treadmill. Twenty subjects (10 men, 10 women) ranging in age from 19-23 with a mean of 20.4 ± 0.8 SD were participants in this study. The subjects visited the laboratory on three occasions. The purpose of the first visit was to familiarize the subject with the self-propelled treadmill (Woodway Curve 3.0). The second visit, subjects were instructed to run on the selfpropelled treadmill for 3km at a self-determined pace. Speed data were collected directly from the self-propelled treadmill. The third visit used speed data collected during the self-propelled treadmill run to create an identically paced 3km run for the subjects to perform on a motorized treadmill (COSMED T150). During both the second and third visit, oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory exchange ratio (R) data were collected with COSMED’s Quark cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) metabolic mixing chamber system. The VO2 mean value for the self-propelled treadmill (44.90 ± 1.65 SE ml/kg/min) was significantly greater than the motorized treadmill (34.38 ± 1.39 SE ml/kg/min). The mean R value for the self-propelled treadmill (0.91 ± 0.01 SE) was significantly greater than the motorized treadmill (0.86 ± 0.01 SE). Our study demonstrated that a 3km run on a selfpropelled treadmill does elicit a greater physiological response than a 3km run at on a standard motorized treadmill. Self-propelled treadmills provide a mode of exercise that offers increased training loads and should be considered as an alternative to motorized treadmills.</p> Todd Backes Charlene Takacs Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 9 3 13 21 10.26524/ijpefs1842 Neuromuscular and Bounce Drop-Jump Responses to Different Inter-Repetition Rest Intervals during A Composite Training Session in Hurling Players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/221 <p>The purposes of this study were to a) compare a 4-min to an 8-min rest interval between composite training (jump-sprint combination) repetitions in a single session to allow for the recovery of neuromuscular and bounce drop-jump (BDJ) performance and b) investigate if super compensation would occur after 168hrs of rest. Twelve players were randomly assigned to either a 4-min or an 8-min rest interval group. Participants first completed a BDJ test to identify individual BDJ drop heights followed by a 20m sprint test. Seventy-two hours later, a composite training session of two repetitions (three BDJs followed by a 20m sprint after a 15s rest) with either a 4-min or an 8-min rest interval was performed. A three repetition maximum (3RM) back squat strength test, a BDJ, countermovement jump (CMJ) and a sprint performance test were completed 10-mins pre- and immediately post-session, and 168 hrs post-session. CMJ force (8-min group) and BDJ (height and reactive strength index (RSI)) measures decreased significantly post-session (4-min and 8-min groups; P ≤ 0.05). Presession to 168 hrs post-session, relative 3RM back squat strength and 20m sprint performance increased significantly for the 4-min group only (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, a 4-min composite training inter-repetition rest interval leads to a significant decline in BDJ measures (RSI and jump height) which may act as fatigue markers for monitoring. However, 4-mins provides sufficient recovery during the session which, in conjunction with 168 hrs of recovery, causes super compensation in neuromuscular performance in hurling players.</p> Paul J Byrne Jeremy Moody Stephen-Mark Cooper Sharon Kinsella Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-11-29 2018-11-29 9 3 1 12 10.26524/ijpefs1841 Are internal focuses really useful? A replication study in Basketball https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/220 <p>To evaluate the external vs. internal focus during free basketball shots in non-basketball players. For this analysis 49 subjects participated in one baseline and one experimental session. During the baseline session all the participants performed 20 free basketball shots without instructions (Non-Instructions). During the experimental session participants were randomly allocated to one group: Dominant-Group, which performed the free basketball shots with the dominant hand; or a Non-dominant Group, which performed the shots with the non-dominant hand. Both groups performed 20 throws under internal and external focus of attention conditions. In the Dominant-Group internal focus of attention resulted in a higher number of successful shots compared with the external focus condition. Our study does not support previous findings and shows that external focus of attention impairs the performance of free basketball shots with the dominant hand in comparison with internal focus and ¨no instructions¨ conditions, in non-basketball players.</p> Dan Río Rodríguez Eliseo Iglesias-Soler Jorge Cuadrado-Pérez Miguel Ferández-del-Olmo Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 72 79 10.26524/ijpefs1838 Sporting events among the disabled between excellence and ideal in motor performance https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/219 <p>The identification of mechanical variables in the motor performance trajectory has a prominent role in improving skill performance, error-exceeding, it contributes seriously to solving some problems of learning and training. The study Aims to highlight the indicators of motor performance for Paralympic athletes during the practicing sports between modelling and between excellences in motor performance, this by taking into account the distinction of athlete practicing with special behavioural skills for the Paralympic athletes. In the study we relied on the analysis of some previous research of biomechanical performance indicators during some of the events sports (shooting activities in the Paralympic athletics, shooting skill in the wheelchair basketball). The results of the study highlight the distinction of disabled practitioners of sporting events identified in motor performance during practice, by overcoming some physics indicators in human movement, as a lower centre of body weight, Increase in offset distance, such resistance which requires them to redouble their efforts. However, the results of the study highlighted the strength of the correlation between biomechanical variables of motor performance and the digital level achievement similar to the other practitioners normal.</p> Guebli Abdelkader Reguieg Madani Belkadi Adel Sbaa Bouabdellah Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 66 71 10.26524/ijpefs1837 The Effects of Innovative Shotgun Shooting Methods on Collegiate Shotgun Shooters https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/218 <p>Sporting activities are classified according to movement demands and can be categorized as either dynamic or static actions. Many events exist within the discipline of “shooting sports”, and dynamic and static demands vary drastically among those events. However, consideration for differences in movement demands is frequently disregarded in shooting sports; common practice protocol encourages shooters to utilize static shooting techniques for all shooting sport events. In particular, shooting techniques for shotgun shooting, a dynamic sporting event, regularly align with rifle shooting (static activity) methods. Innovative dynamic shotgun shooting techniques have recently been developed, however, no previous studies have examined the outcomes of employing these dynamic techniques. Therefore, the current research investigated the effects of innovative shotgun shooting methods on collegiate shotgun shooters (n=38). Pre and post trap and skeet scores were collected at a certified International Shooting Sport Federation and USA Shooting competition field. Upon completion of pre-test shooting, subjects participated in an Optimum Shooting Performance (OSP) intervention that outlined innovative dynamic shooting and practice techniques. Post-test shooting scores were collected after 2-weeks of OSP practice. A paired sample t test identified statistically significant improvements for trap shooting scores (t[32] = 2.82, p = .008, 95% CI [0.431, 2.660], d = .49), skeet shooting scores (t[32] = 2.59, p = .01, 95% CI [0.436, 3.625], d = .45), and total shooting (sum score of trap and skeet tests) scores (t[32] = 3.37, p = .002, 95% CI [1.417, 5.734], d = .59). These results suggest that learning and utilizing the OSP methods significantly increased the shooting performance of college shotgun shooters.</p> Andrew Allen Wolfe Kayla Peak Jana Burch Gerald Burch Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 57 65 10.26524/ijpefs1836 The more sleep – the better the physical state? An analysis from running https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/217 <p>Studies focusing on effects of sleep on physical performance respectively running are sparse. In the younger past knowledge evoked that sleep debt has many effects on dietary intake and predisposes adiposity or diabetes. It is suggested that the current obesity epidemic is also caused by sleep dept which influences endocrine homeostasis (Leptin, Ghrelin, Neuropeptide Y, galanin, orexin, and insulin homeostasis) and affects eating behavior in consequence. Especially glucose homeostasis is strongly coupled with endurance capacity respectively running performance. Sleep debt goes in with a dysregulation of the Melatonin system affecting ACTH-Cortisol Homeostasis while having effects on running performance. Running has positive effects on sleep quality but the counter mechanism that good sleep improves running performance is only partly elucidated. However, sufficient sleep is of highest importance for improving personal best times and hard training days are only possible with adequate sleep. When looking forward newest findings indicate that hard training days go in with a reduced sleep efficiency underlying the complex mechanism remaining to be elucidated.</p> Benedikt Andreas Gasser Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 48 56 10.26524/ijpefs1835 Reliability of independent kinetic variables and measures of inter-limb asymmetry associated with bilateral drop-landing performance https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/216 <p>The purpose of this investigation was to establish the within-session reliability for peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), time to peak vGRF, and loading rate, both unilaterally and bilaterally, during a droplanding task as well as the reliability of inter-limb asymmetry in peak vGRF. Twenty-two men (age = 22 ± 4 years; height = 180.4 ± 6.1 cm; mass = 77.9 ± 14.0 kg) and 17 women (age = 20.4 ± 3.6 years; height = 164.6 ± 9.4 cm; mass = 60.3 ± 9.8 kg) volunteered for a single testing session. Participants completed three countermovement jumps (CMJ) to establish maximum jump height before performing five bilateral drop-landings from 50%, 100%, and 150% of their maximum CMJ height. The bilateral drop-landing protocol was then repeated after a 10 min recovery. Systematic bias, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV%) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values for each kinetic measurement was calculated for the left and right leg, as well as bilaterally. There was no systematic bias present between trials (P &gt; 0.05). All kinetic measurements showed relative reliability, ranging from large to near perfect (ICC = 0.57–0.95). Absolute reliability ranged considerably depending on the measure and drop-height, with peak vGRF and time to peak GRF showing the greatest reliability at higher drop heights (CV% = 6.6–9.7%). Loading rate for all drop heights demonstrated CV% ranging 13.0–27.6%. Furthermore, MDC values for inter-limb asymmetries in peak vGRF ranged between 14.5–16.2% for all drop heights. Overall, many of the kinetic measurements evaluated were sufficiently reliable to detect typical changes in bilateral drop-landing performance when greater drop heights were used.</p> Louis Howe Jamie North Mark Waldron Theodoros Bampouras Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 32 47 10.26524/ijpefs1834 Can Physics Help Athletes Run Faster on a Curve Track https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/215 <p>Sprinting on a curve is slower than sprinting on a straight lane. To explain this phenomenon, various models based on a combination of biological and physical assumptions have been developed. These models depend on detailed parameters that significantly differ for each individual athlete. Here, I propose a general model solely based on kinetic theory of physics that can be universally applied to all athletes. By solving the force and torque equations for the running speed of the athletes on a curved track, I analyze sprinting speeds between the inner and outer curves. Applying the data from the classic works into my models, I find that the results and conclusions are mostly aligned with the previous works while my approach is built on the accurate physics principles and contains no uncontrollable parameters. Further I show how runners can alleviate the centrifugal effect of curved track by tilting their bodies and I quantitatively determine the optimal tilting angle for a given curvature</p> Katherine Han Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 24 31 10.26524/ijpefs1833 Characterizing the Metabolic Intensity and Cardiovascular Demands of Walking Football in Southeast Asian Women https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/214 <p>Given that the recent rise in obesity rates throughout Southeast Asia is disproportionately driven by women, part of the regional solution may be to encourage more habitual physical activity within this population. Taking advantage of the regional popularity of walking football, this study sought to characterize the cardiovascular demands and metabolic intensity of Southeast Asian women competing in walking football matches to determine the sports’ suitability for promoting physical health. It was hypothesized that both cardiovascular and metabolic intensity measures (≥65% HR% and ≥3.0 METs, respectively) would meet or exceed established thresholds for improving fitness and health. Methods: Women’s teams from Singapore (Mean±SD: 42±11 yrs age; 29.2±7.0 kg/m2 BMI; n=14) and Malaysia (40±10 yrs age; 32.9±5.7 kg/m2 BMI; n=8) competed in two successive matches within a single day during which measures of heart rate (HR) and GPS (from portable handheld device) were recorded for each player, while relative HR was computed as a percent of each player’s age-predicted maximal HR (HR%, %). The GPS data were later converted to walking distance and metabolic intensity (i.e., metabolic equivalents, or METs). One-sample t-tests at the 0.05 alpha level were used to compare variables to their respective thresholds. Results: Both Malaysian and Singaporean teams had mean relative HRs (91-95% of HR<sub>MAX</sub> [P=0.008] versus 77-80% of HR<sub>MAX</sub> [P&lt;0.001], respectively) that exceeded the 65% threshold for improving cardiovascular fitness. Both teams also maintained an average metabolic intensity that was statistically similar to the 3.0 MET threshold that decreases one risk for non-communicable diseases (3.2±0.9 METs [P=0.0510] versus (3.3±1.0 METs [P=0.288], respectively), and both teams walked an average of 2.2-2.4 kms/match. Conclusions: These results support the idea that competitive walking football is of sufficient intensity to promote positive changes in both cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in this population of Southeast Asian women.</p> Heil D.P Newton R.U Salle D.D.A Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 12 23 10.26524/ijpefs1832 Physical performance measures following ten weeks of taekwondo training in children: A pilot study https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/213 <p>The primary purpose was to examine changes in balance, lower extremity (LE) power and flexibility following 10 weeks of taekwondo (TKD) training and to determine if this was different in children classified as healthy weight (HW) and overweight (OW)/obese. Participants included 17 children (HW: n = 11, OW/obese: n = 6). Data were collected on balance, LE power and flexibility at baseline and 10 weeks. Balance was assessed with eyes open in normal (NSEO), tandem (TSEO), single (SLEO) stances and with eyes closed for normal (NSEC) and tandem (TSEC) stances. Center of pressure displacements in mediolateral (Xavg) and anteroposterior (Yavg) directions; and average velocity (Vavg) were calculated. Analyses included two-way ANOVA and Mann Whitney U tests (P &lt; 0.05). Balance data indicated significant interaction effects for Xavg in NSEO, Yavg in TSEO; time effects for Yavg in NSEO, NSEC and SLEO and Vavg in SLEO conditions. A significant group effect was shown for Vavg in the NSEO, NSEC and TSEO and for Yavg in TSEC conditions. Flexibility decreased significantly with TKD. Findings suggest that 10 weeks of TKD training may improve balance in children, and OW/obese group may have greater improvements in balance with eyes open compared to their peers.</p> Neeti Pathare Rachel Kimball Elizabeth Donk Kyle Kennedy Mellissa Perry Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-09-30 2018-09-30 9 3 1 11 10.26524/ijpefs1831 Comparison of health benefits between a high intensity interval training and a moderate intensity continuous training when performed in a nonlaboratory setting, in moderately obese women https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/212 <p>The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effects of a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and a moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) performed within a fitness center, on various health indices of 49 sedentary and moderately obese women (age 37 ± 7 years; BMI 32 ± 4 kg/m2) randomly assigned to supervised exercise on a cycle ergometer, 3 times/week, during 12 weeks, at 60% (MICT, n=24) or 85% (HIIT, n=25) of their heart rate reserve for weeks 5-12. Anthropometry, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, CRF (2 km-walking test estimated V; O<sub>2</sub>max), quality of life, QoL (SF-36 Questionnaire), eating behaviors (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, TFEQ) and perceived health (Short Health Perceived Questionnaire, SHPQ) were obtained before and after training from 10 HIIT vs. 13 MICT participants who completed the program. At baseline, both groups showed similar characteristics, except for a better sleep quality (SHPQ) in MICT than in HIIT participants (p&lt;0.005). Increases in CRF (+3 to +5%) and decreases in body weight (-2%) and thus BMI (-2.5 to -4.5%), waist girth (-4%) and fat mass (-6 to - 8%) were comparable (0.0001&lt;p&lt;0.05). The physical component score (SF-36), the cognitive restriction and hunger scores (TFEQ), and the perceived health items (SPHQ) were similarly improved, irrespective of the training mode (0.01&lt;p&lt;0.05). Twelve weeks of either HIIT or MICT led to similar body weight and fat mass losses as well as to comparable improvements in CRF, QoL, eating behaviors and perceived health, in healthy, sedentary and moderately obese women. However, the large dropout in the HIIT (58%; 14 of 24) and MICT (48%; 12 of 25) groups questions the implementation of such training programs within a non-laboratory setting. Further studies are clearly needed to better adapt the conditions of practice to subjects' characteristics and thus promote their long-term adherence to exercise.</p> Sophie Garnier Sandra Cédric Hérédia Denis R. Joanisse Pascale Mauriège Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 3 43 56 10.26524/ijpefs1826 Formation of the sensorimotor operation pattern from a system-theoretical perspective https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/211 <p>The starting point to the analyzes presented in this paper is the fact that the primary task for the nervous system – both central and peripheral – of living creatures is the control of movements. The only result of any mental process, the only way to influence the environment, aimed at producing desired results in environment, is the movement. These issues make the subject of the discipline of science termed motor control. In this field, the efficiency of mathematics is highly disputable. On the other hand, the promising tool for knowledge ordering seems to be the systems theory. For its invention Ludwig von Bertalanffy is credited (1968). However, already in late 1940s such an approach has been presented by Nikolai A. Bernstein. His theory is commonly regarded as a cornerstone of modern motor control. Basing on evolutionary and neurophysiological knowledge, he invented a systemic model termed “brain skyscraper”, structural in its essence. It was possible to invent the slightly simplified, parallel model of functional nature, termed “modalities’ ladder”, founding upon information processing. The practical application of the ladder in teaching of motor operations, presented in this paper, is termed “one level higher” principle. An important outcome of the modalities’ ladder is also its specific, function oriented, systemic ordering of motor control terminology.</p> Waclaw Petryński Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 3 30 42 10.26524/ijpefs1825 Daily Fluctuations in Hormonal and Performance Markers in Collegiate Weightlifters https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/210 <p>The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between daily fluctuations in hormonal and performance markers in weightlifters. Nine male collegiate weightlifters gave daily pre-practice salivary samples for one week and were tested daily for standing broad jump distance; first jump (BJ1) and best jump (BJB) were recorded. Volume-load was heavy on Monday (47%), light on Tuesday (13%), and medium-heavy on Wednesday (40%). To determine if variables differed by day, RM ANOVAs were used with partial-eta squared effect sizes (η2 p) to calculate meaningful changes. RM ANOVA models suggest daily differences occurred for T (F=4.027, p=.024, η2 p =.402), T/C (F=11.735, p=.019, η2 p =.898), and BJ1 (F=6.229, p=.004, η2 p =.509), but not for C (F=1.623, p=.219, η2 p =.213) nor BJB (F=1.088, p=.379, η2 p =.154). Daily fluctuations in BJ1 shared a moderate inverse relationship with daily fluctuations in C (r = -0.42), whereas BJB revealed no association with hormonal markers. T, T/C, and BJ1 appeared to be meaningfully affected by the previous day’s training stress in collegiate weightlifters, suggesting that BJ1 may be indicative of hormonal status and that a one-day reduction in VL may enhance acute athlete readiness.</p> Kyle D. Peterson Matthew J. Andre Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 3 25 29 10.26524/ijpefs1824 Convergent Validity of a Consumer-Grade Accelerometer with a Research-Grade Pedometer in a Physical Education Setting https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/209 <p>The cost of activity monitors has substantially reduced in recent years, making them more feasible for use in physical education programs. This study examined the convergent validity of the consumer-grade Movband activity monitor with the research-grade NL-2000 pedometer. The NL-2000 was chosen as the criterion unit because it is unaffected by BMI, pedometer tilt, or waist circumference, and has been recommended for use in research [1]. One hundred and eleven elementary school aged children (53 boys, 58 girls; 9.2 ± 0.7 yr.) from three physical education classes wore an NL-2000 on their right hip and a Movband on each wrist during a 30 minute class in which participants walked or ran on a hiking trail. A repeated measures ANOVA of mean steps indicated a significant difference (p&lt; .001) between the NL-2000 (2411.74 ± 514.87) and the Movband worn on either wrist (left= 1554.33 ± 340.81, right= 1532.26 ± 329.76). Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that NL-2000 steps and Moves were significantly and positively correlated (p&lt; .001; left= .79, right= .85). The correlation coefficient between left and right wrists was .87. In general, the Movband can provide reasonable estimates of physical activity for physical education teachers.</p> Justin Menickelli Dan P. Grube Sarah Lowell Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 3 20 24 10.26524/ijpefs1823 A brief review of body composition in police workforce https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/208 <p>It is evident that success in performing certain police duties undoubtedly depends on the level of certain physical abilities, while good health status is necessary for each employee in police workforce. Tasks performed by police officers can involve chasing fleeing suspects on foot, grappling, wrestling and handling uncooperative belligerents, and carrying injured or unconscious people. Next to the “foot soldiers”, logistics and administration jobs are less physically but mentally very demanding and stressful. In both cases, body composition has twofold importance in physical fitness: performance-related and health-related. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gather the studies that dealt with body composition in police workforce using various approaches with the aim to make a clearer insight into what has been done so far, and what might be done in the future.</p> Filip Kukic Milivoj Dopsaj Aleksandar Cvorovic Milos Stojkovic Velimir Jeknic Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 3 10 19 10.26524/ijpefs1822 Physical activity of pupils: Engagement of pupils younger school age in extracurricular sports activities https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/207 <p>One of the most important health problems of today's society is hypokinesia accompanied by obesity. The assumption is that reduced physical activity has a large negative impact on the school population. The problem of reduced commitment and involvement of pupils in extracurricular activities is increasingly evident in recent times, which results in a number of negative health effects on the human body of an individual. This study comprised a group of pupils from first to the fourth year of elementary school in Pale (city East Sarajevo, BIH). The total sample consisted of 175 pupils (84 male and 91 female) age 11 to 14±0,5years. As a way of gathering the required information, we used an anonymous questionnaire of the open type in order to collect information about pupils involvement in extracurricular sports activities. The survey was conducted in October 2017 and all the pupils voluntarily participated in the study. Based on the survey results have been obtained the necessary information to reflect the very good of physical activity, of the pupils population. Of the total sample of pupils, the survey confirmed that 100% are physically active pupils. This is an encouraging result because today we have less physically active school children.</p> Ratko Pavlović Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 9 3 1 9 10.26524/ijpefs1821 Sports for all and its role for maintenance and promotion of physical fitness and wellness https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/206 <p>Sports are the physical activities that named according to their respective ways of playing. There is a misleading concept regarding sports that only players can participate in physical or sports activities. But the true is that as the science and technology has made individual to rely on machines, its becomes necessary for all to take part in any kind of physical and sports activities to escape one from the hypo kinetic disorders and to keep physical fitness and wellness. This study has analyzed the role of sports in relation to maintain and promote physical fitness and wellness.</p> Mridusmita Phukan Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 9 3 24 27 10.26524/ijpefs1815 Connection between morphological characteristics and vertical jump stiffness of Female volleyball players https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/205 <p>Research was conducted on the sample of 73 female participants, members of volleyball clubs “Jahorina” from Pale and “Student”, aged 10-16 (younger pioneers N=35 and pioneers-cadets N=38). Younger pioneers had been involved in the training process for 1 year whereas pioneer-cadet female participants had been involved in the training process for at least three years. Morphological characteristics were measured on entire sample using the IBP procedure, as well as the vertical jump stiffness assessment using the device ‘Just Jump System’ aim of this research was to determine the connection between anthropometrical variables and jumping performances of female volleyball players. Linear regression analysis results suggest that predictor system of the anthropometrical variables had no statistically significant connection with the criteria in both sub-samples. Common variable in both cases was in very low percentages. Research results suggest that the assessment of muscle strength in explosive motor tasks is independent from the body size and activities of morphological characteristics.</p> Bojan Bjelica Dejan Gojković Radomir Pržulj Borislav Cicović Marko Joksimović Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 9 3 17 23 10.26524/ijpefs1814 Solving the Acoustic Issue in Physical Education Settings https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/204 <p>The audibility of teachers and peers is an essential factor in determining the academic performance of school children. However, acoustic conditions in physical education settings are less than optimal and have been viewed as “hostile listening environments” that undermine the learning of children in school. While typical classroom teachers are faced with many voice concerns, gymnasiums with poor acoustics, covered areas, and outdoor teaching environments can be more challenging to the voices of physical education teachers. They often rely on shouting instructions over noises and hope their students will hear and understand. This article reviews current acoustic research in classrooms and in physical education settings and future actions designed to improve sound issues and their related policies.</p> Stu Ryan Daniel Swartz Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 9 3 11 16 10.26524/ijpefs1813 The relationship between occupational burnout levels of job satisfaction of Physical Education Teachers in the case of Mugla Province https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/203 <p>Purpose of the research; To determine whether occupational burnout levels of physical education teachers differ from their demographic characteristics and to question the relationship between physical education teachers' job satisfaction and occupational burnout levels, if relevant, to reveal the effect on occupational burnout level. The model of the research is causal comparative and relational screening. The research universities constitute 406 physical education teachers who work in the provinces and districts of Muğla and the sample is 76 physical education teachers who participate voluntarily. The obtained data were subjected to normality test. Nonparametric test statistic was used when determining the difference between the groups because the data were not distributed normally. The Kruskall Wallis and Mann Whitney-U test at 0.05 significance level was used to determine the difference between the demographic characteristics of the physical education teachers and the levels of occupational burnout. The relationship between job satisfaction and occupational burnout levels of physical education teachers was determined by correlation analysis at the significance level of 0.01. Because of the relationship between two variables; A regression analysis of the significance level of 0.01 was used to determine the effects of physical education teachers' job satisfaction levels on their occupational burnout levels. According to research findings; there is a significant difference between the seniority years of physical education teachers and the average levels of emotional exhaustion and personal achievement levels. Physical education teachers with 11-15 years of seniority have higher levels of emotional exhaustion and personal success than others. There is a positive relationship between physical education teachers' job satisfaction and occupational burnout levels. As levels of job satisfaction increase, occupational burnout levels decline. This effect is; 15.9% (R2 = 0.155) in the dimension of emotional exhaustion and 15.7% (R2 = 0.157) in the personal achievement dimension.</p> Esin ÖLMEZ Ümmügülsüm ÇAKMAK Abdurrahman KEPOĞLU Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 9 3 6 10 10.26524/ijpefs1812 Lifting the Mind: A Case Study of Applied Sport Psychology in Powerlifting https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/202 <p>The sport of powerlifting has extensive research within the areas of physical and physiological training and the impact these factors have on competitive performance, yet there is a lack of research examining the impact applied mental training has on meet performance. Over the course of this four-month sport psychology intervention, the case of Matt highlights the positive psychological, emotional, and competitive effects applied mental training can have on an elite powerlifter. Examining topics such as training burnout and staleness, competitive goal setting and self-talk, and in – competition arousal control and energy management, this study’s results suggests the importance the growing field of applied sport and exercise psychology may play in the emerging sport of powerlifting. Though case study in nature, the qualitative reports and significant quantitative results of this case will hopefully reshape the way trainers, coaches, and athletes think about powerlifting meet preparation, on and off the platform.</p> Scott P. Barnicle Maxime Lepage Copyright (c) 2018 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2018-03-30 2018-03-30 9 3 1 5 10.26524/ijpefs1811 Weight Management: It’s Effect in the Prevention of Obesity Related Illnesses https://ijpefs.com/ijpefs/article/view/201 <p>While the world is focusing on global hunger and malnutrition, another ugly “monster” has emerged – OBESITY, a new form of malnutrition, has surfaced as an urgent challenge affecting several countries. The issue of obesity has received a great deal of attention over the past few decades. Rising obesity rates are a major concern worldwide. The study aims to determine the effect of weight management in the prevention of chronic illnesses acquired from obesity of laboratory high school students. The study made use of purposive sampling of One Hundred laboratory high school students using questionnaire is the main instrument in data gathering. It is noted that the students practice healthy lifestyles and preventions to health problems. The respondents should be into physical activities and embrace properly balanced diet since it shows that these have a relationship in the prevention of health problems.</p> Robert Alvin A. Yap Copyright (c) 2017 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ 2017-12-30 2017-12-30 9 3 20 25 10.26524/ijpefs1744