Vol 8 No 1 (2019): Volume 8, Issue 1, Year 2019
Articles

Styles of Reasoning in a Sensorimotor Operation in Humans

Wacław Petryński
Katowice School of Economics, Katowice, Poland
Published March 30, 2019
Keywords
  • Attention,
  • Intelligence,
  • Intellect,
  • Modalities’ Ladder,
  • Movements’ Management Matrix
How to Cite
Petryński, W. (2019). Styles of Reasoning in a Sensorimotor Operation in Humans. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 8(1), 49-57. https://doi.org/10.26524/ijpefs1916

Plum Analytics

Abstract

The aims of the present study were: (1) identify and compare the biological maturity in Portuguese gymnasts across competitive levels of performance; (2) investigate how morphological variables and training volume behave in the different status and indicators of maturity and (3) determinate if the maturity status influences the competitive performance. The sample (n=164) consisted of three competition levels (Base, 1st division and Elite) from Portugal. Anthropometric measurements and body composition were performed. For analysis of biological maturation, the sexual and somatic maturation were evaluated. For the statistical analyses, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Linear Regression were used. In total, 63.4% of gymnasts had not yet reached menarche and the higher competition level, lower the number of gymnasts with menarche. On mean, all groups had reached the age at peak height velocity. The higher the competition level, higher the chronological age and age at peak height velocity. Thus, the maturation indicators showed a delay in pubertal development in all competition levels and the elite gymnasts seem present a later pubertal development. The chronological age, the values of body mass, height, BMI and body fat increased with the maturity status according all maturity indicators. However, gymnasts with different maturity status revealed similar training volume. Finally, the maturational status explained 11.5% of competition success with higher advantage in the competitive performance to prepubertal gymnasts. Thus, the premenarchal status and a higher age at peak height velocity contribute to performance in Rhythmic Gymnastics.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. A. Wohl, Słowo a ruch. Z zagadnień motoryczności ludzkiej (Word and movement. The selected issues of theory of human motoricity), (1965), Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, Warsaw (in Polish)
  2. R.B. Cattell, Intelligence: its structure, growth and action, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.Amsterdam, (1987) New York: North-Holland.
  3. M. Heller, Podróże z filozofią w tle (Travels with philosophy in the background), (2014), Znak, Krakow, (in Polish).
  4. W. Petryński, Motor control in humans: a system-theoretical approach, (2016), Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY.
  5. W. Petryński, Formation of the sensorimotor operation pattern from a system-theoretical perspective, International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 7(2) (2018), 30-42.
  6. J.M. Morawski, Człowiek i technologia. Sekrety wzajemnych uwarunkowań (Human and technology. The secrets of mutual relations), (2005), Pultusk Academy of Humanities, Pułtusk (in Polish).
  7. R.M. Nideffer, Test of attentional and interpersonal style, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34 (1976) 394-404.
  8. J.J. Gibson, The senses considered as perceptual system, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT (1983).
  9. L.P. Latash, M.L. Latash, A new book by N. A. Bernstein: "On dexterity and its development, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26 (1994) 56-62.
  10. N.A. Bernstein, O postroyenii dvizheniy (On construction of movements), (1947) Medgiz, Moscow.
  11. A. Clark, Microcognition. Philosophy, cognitive science and parallel distributed processing, MIT Press Cambridge, (1989) MA, United States of America.
  12. N.A. Bernstein, O lovkosti i jejo razvitii (On dexterity and its development), Fizkultura i sport, (1991) Moscow (in Russian).
  13. I.M.Feigenberg, W. Petryński, Pamięć przeszłości – podstawa prawdopodobnego przewidywania przyszłości (Memory of the past for probabilistic prognosis of the future), Antropomotoryka, 34 (2018) 17-32.
  14. I. Barrow, Geometrical lectures of Isaac Barrow, Cosimo Inc, (2008), New York, NY.
  15. G.V. Coyne, M. Heller, A comprehensible universe, Springer Verlag, (2008) New York, NY.
  16. A. Hotz, Qualitatives Bewegungslernen (Qualitative motor learning), (1997), Verlag Schweizerischer Verband für Sport in der Schule SVSS, Bern (in German).