Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2020-06-06

The Impact of the Change of Water Polo Rules on the Game Dynamics

Elementary School Dobrislav D. Perunovic, Niksic, Montenegro
Football club National, Podgorica, Montenegro
Goals Quarters Water polo match Rules


This research aimed to identify a change in the dynamics of the water polo game related to identifying differences in the number of goals scored before and after the introduction of the current 2019 rules. The sample analyzed 96 matches from the 2018 and 2020 European Water Polo Championships. The sample of variables included five variables for both subsamples, which referred to the total number of goals scored in the match, as well as the total number of goals per quarter. By applying the T-test for small independent samples, it was determined that at a statistically significant level, a higher number of goals was achieved in the third and fourth quarters, as well as the total number of goals in the 2020 European Championship in Hungary, compared to the 2018 European Championship in Spain. No statistically significant differences were found in the variables related to the total number of goals in the first and second quarters of the water polo match. The rule change, which came into force in 2019, was driven by changes in the game that directly reflected in a more dynamic game that resulted in more goals per game as well as in the final quarter of the game. These changes were undoubtedly preceded by changes in the total number of attacks, faster swimming, more frequent shots, which should definitely be determined by additional research.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


  1. P. Snyder, (2008) Waterpolo for players & teachers of aquatics: California-Fullerton: Fullerton College.
  2. FINA. Book (2005-2009), (2008) Lausane, Switzerland: Federation Internationale de Natation Amater.
  3. H.K. Smith, Applied physiology of water polo, Sports Medicine, 26 (1998) 317-334.
  4. F.H. Tan, T. Polglaze, B. Dawson, G. Cox, Anthropometric and fitness characteristics of elite Australian female water polo players, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23 (2009) 1530–1536.
  5. P.E. Alcaraz, J.A. Abraldes, C. Ferragut, N. Rodriguez, F.M. Argudo, H. Vila, Throwing velocities, anthropometric characteristics, and efficacy indices of women’s European water polo subchampions, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25 (2011) 3051–3058.
  6. J. Madera, V. Tella, J.M. Saavedra, Effects of Rule Changes on Game-Related Statistics in Men's Water Polo Matches, Sports, 5 (2017) 84.
  7. M. Lozovina, V. Lozovina, Attractiveness lost in the water polo rules, Sport Science, 2 (2009) 85–89.
  8. J. Donev, M. Aleksandrović, History of rule changes in water polo, Sport Science, 1 (2008) 16-22.
  9. M. Hraste, M. Bebic, R. Rudic, Where is today's Water Polo Heading? An Analysis of the Stages of Development of the Game of Water Polo, Our Sea, Scientific-Professional Journal for Sea and Marine, 60 (2013) 17-22.
  10. FINA Water Polo Rules 2019 – 2021, (2019) Amendments, Additions, Interpretations and Explanations: Effective as of 10 February.
  11. M, Lozovina, V. Lozovina, Proposal for changing the rules of water polo, Sport Science, 12 (Suppl. 1) (2019) 14-26.
  12. M. Trivun, N. Gardašević, B. Janjić, Situation efficiency indicators relations depending on the outcome of water polo matches, Sport and Health, 14(1) (2019) 47-53.
  13. LEN (, accessed on 15 February 2020.)
  14. D. Radovanović, T. Okičić, A. Ignjatović, Physiological Profile of Elite Woman Water Polo Players, Acta Medica Mediane, 46 (2007) 48-51.
  15. V. Lozovina, L. Pavičić, (2002) Analysis of indicators of load during the game in activity of the heavy defender in water polo. In Milanović, D. & Prot, F. (eds.) Proceedings Book – 4th International scientific conference Kinesiology New Perspectives, pp 357–360, Zagreb: Fakultet za fizičku kulturu.
  16. G. Melchiori, C. Castagna, R. Sorge, M. Bonifazi, Game Activity and Blood Lactate in Men's Elite Water-Polo Players, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24 (2010) 2647-2651.
  17. D. Radovanović, M. Aleksandrović, G. Ranković, The Effects of Water Polo Training on Aerobic Power and Pulmonary Function in 11 and 12 years Old Boys, Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, 21 (2004) 137-141
  18. C. Castagna, S. D’Ottavio, J. Granda-Vera, J.C. Barbero A´lvare, Match demands of professional futsal: A case study, Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12 (2009) 490–494.
  19. A.P. Hollander, S.H.J. Dupont, S.M. Volkerijk, eds. Physiological strain during competitive water polo games and training. In: Medicine and Science in Aquatic Sports (Vol. 39). M.Y. Miyashita, and A.B. Richardson, eds. Basel, Switzerland: Karger Publishers, 1994. pp. 178–185.
  20. T. Platanou, Cardiovascular and metabolic requirements of water polo, Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 3(3) (2009) 85-97.


How to Cite

Gardasevic, N., & Joksimovic, M. (2020). The Impact of the Change of Water Polo Rules on the Game Dynamics. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 9(2), 51-56.

Copyrights & License