Vol 8 No 4 (2019): Volume 8, Issue 4, Year 2019
Articles

Effect of Sport Media on Social Behaviour: The Attitude and Perception Change of Chinese College Students toward the International Media Reporting the Beijing Olympics

Charlie Song
Department of Administration and Law, University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida.
Jianhua Zhang
College of Physical Education and Sports, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
Aiguang Zhou
College of Physical Education and Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
Stu Ryan
Department of Teacher Education and Educational Leadership, University of West Florida, Pensacola, Florida
Published November 8, 2019
Keywords
  • Media effect,
  • Mega-events,
  • International media,
  • Social impact,
  • Olympic Games,
  • Social behaviour
  • ...More
    Less
How to Cite
Song, C., Zhang, J., Zhou, A., & Ryan, S. (2019). Effect of Sport Media on Social Behaviour: The Attitude and Perception Change of Chinese College Students toward the International Media Reporting the Beijing Olympics. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 8(4), 125-141. Retrieved from https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/305

Abstract

This study assessed the attitude and perceptions of college students in China before and immediately after the 2008 Beijing Olympics toward the international media's reporting of the Games and China. A total of 657 students from seven campuses eight months before the Olympics and 1,000 students from ten campuses immediately after the Olympics were randomly surveyed. The data analysis (independent t-Test) depicts that the students' attitudes and perceptions toward the international media had positively changed from the pre- to the post-Olympic surveys. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Scheffe’s post hoc test results revealed that the survey respondents’ political preferences were the constant factors that influenced their attitude and perception change toward the international media. This study illustrates a media effect on changing the survey participants’ and their represented population’s attitude and perceptions toward the international media’s coverage of sport mega-events that is supported by the theories of mega-events and modernity, media communication and social behaviour, and social impact.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. E.W. Rothenbuhler, The living room celebration of the Olympics, Journal of Communication, 38 (1988) 61-81.
  2. A.C. Billings, (2008) Olympic media: Inside the biggest show on television, Taylor & Francis, New York, USA.
  3. R. Cashman, (2006) The bitter-sweet awakening: The legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, Walla Walla Press, Sydney, Australia.
  4. J.F. Larson, & H.S. Park, (1993) Global television and the politics of the Seoul Olympics, James F. Larson, San Francisco, CA.
  5. M.D. Moragas, N.K. Rivenburgh, & J.F. Larson, (1995) Television in the Olympics, John Libbey Media, Luton, UK.
  6. M. Roche, (2000) Mega-events modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture, Routledge, London, UK.
  7. E.W. Rothenbuhler, Values and symbols in orientations to the Olympics, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 6 (1989) 138-157.
  8. C. Song, E. Ranelli, Reading the major economic indicators to examine the impact of the Olympic Games on Beijing's economy, Journal of Business Issues, 1 (2008) 37-55.
  9. A. Nowak, J. Szamrej, B. Latane, From private attitude to public opinion: A dynamic theory of social impact, Psychological Review, 97(1990) 362-376.
  10. C. Song, J. Zhang, S. Ryan, Perceptions and attitudes of university students in Beijing toward the international media’s coverage of the 2008 Olympic Games, International Journal of Sport Communication, 3(2010) 207-225.
  11. L. Chalip, C.C. Green, B. Hill, Effects of sport event media on destination image and intention to visit, Journal of Sport Management, 17 (2003) 214-234.
  12. L. Dwyer, R. Mellor, N. Mistilis, T. Mules, A framework for assessing "tangible" and "intangible" impacts of events and conventions, Event Management, 6(2000) 175-189.
  13. J. Horne, W. Manzenreiter, (2006) An introduction to the sociology of sports mega-events, The Sociological Review, Blackwell Publishing Ltd Malden, MA.
  14. L. Chalip, Towards social leverage of sport events, Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11 (2006) 109-127.
  15. S. Alomes, One Day in September: Grass Roots Enthusiasm, Invented Traditions and Contemporary Commercial Spectacle and the Australian Football League Finals, Sporting Traditions, 17 (2000) 77-96.
  16. E.P. Archetti, (1999) The spectacle of heroic masculinity: Vegard Ulvang and Alberto Tomba in the Olympic Winter Games of Albertville, In A.M. Klausen (Ed.) Olympic Games as performance and public event: the case of the XVII Olympic Games in Norway Berghahn Books, New York.
  17. J. Buschmann, (1996) From Rome (1960) to Montreal (1976): from rite to spectacle, In Olympic ceremonies: historical continuity and cultural exchange, International Olympic Committee, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  18. J.L. Abbott, M.W. Geddie, Event and venue management: minimizing liability through effective crowd management techniques, Event Management, 6 (2000) 259-270.
  19. A. Berlonghi, (1990) The special event risk management manual, Alexander Berlonghi, Dana Point, CA.
  20. J.J. Mac Aloon, (1998) The politics and anti-politics of Olympic marketing, Annual Conference of the Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand, Gold Coast, Australia.
  21. P.R. Emery, Bidding to host a major sports event, International Journal of Public Sector Management, 4 (2002) 316-335.
  22. M. Larson, E. Wikstrom, Organizing Events: Managing Conflict and Consensus in a Political Market Square, Event Management, 7 (2001) 51-65.
  23. A.L. Sack, A.T. Johnson, Politics, economic development and the Volvo International Tennis Tournament, Journal of Sport Management, 10 (1996) 1-14.
  24. D. Whitson, D. Macintosh, The global circus: international sport, tourism, and the marketing of cities, Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 20 (1996) 278-295.
  25. Amnesty International, People's Republic of China: The Olympics countdown: Failing to keep human right promises, Amnesty International Publications, (2006) 1-20.
  26. Amnesty International, People's Republic of China: The Olympic countdown - one year left to fulfill human rights promises, Amnesty International Publications, (2007) 1-17.
  27. Human Right Watch, (2007) China: Media freedoms under assaut in China ahead of 2008 Olympics, Retrieved from http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2007/05/30/china-media-freedom-under-assault-ahead-2008-olympics
  28. C. Zissis, P. Bhattacharji, (2008) Media cersorship in China, Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/publication/11515/media_censorship_in_china.html
  29. C. Huang, Trace the stones in crosing the river, The International Communication Gazette, 69(2007) 413-430.
  30. A. Neumann, A question of freedom, Far East Economic Review, 168 (2005) 54-57.
  31. H. Wang, "Linking up with the international track" What's in a slogan?, The China Quarterly, 189 (2007) 1-23.
  32. B. Latane, (1981) The psychology of social impact, American Psychologist, 36(4) 343-356.
  33. M. Malfas, E. Theodoraki, B. Houlihan, Impacts of the Olympic Games as mega-events, Municipal Engineer, 157 (2004) 209-220.
  34. D. Dayan, F. Katz, (1992) Media events, Harvard University, London, UK.
  35. Xinhua News Agency, (2006) Regulations on reporting activities in China by foreign journalists during the Beijing Olympic Games and the preparatory period.
  36. S. Biagi, (2012) Media impact: An introduction to mass media, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA.
  37. J. Meyrowwitz, (1985) No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behaviour, Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
  38. W.J. McGuire, (1986) The myth of massive media impact: Savagings and salvagings, In Comstock, G. (Ed.), Public communication and behavior, Academic Press, Orlando FL, USA.
  39. S.J. Ball-Rokeach, M.L. DeFleur, A dependency model of mass-media effects, Communication Research, 3(1976) 3-21.
  40. S.H. Chaffee, (1977) Mass media effects: New research approaches, In D. Lerner & L. Nelson M. (Eds.) Communication research - A half-century appraisal, University Press of Hawaii, USA.
  41. D.E. Roberts, N. Maccoby, (1985) Effects of mass communication, In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, Random House, New York, USA.
  42. E.M. Perse, (2001) Media effects and society, Taylor & Francis, UK.
  43. University of Connecticut, (2005) Press freedom in the U.S.: A national survey of journalists and the American public, Retrieved from http://importance.corante.com/archives/UCONN_DPP_Press_Release.pdf
  44. A. Seno, The Guangdong rule: A southern Chinese province is now a media gateway, Newsweek, 43(2003)
  45. Statista, (2019) Number of Olympic Games TV viewers worldwide from 2002 to 2016, Retrieved from https://www.statista.com/statistics/287966/olympic-games-tv-viewership-worldwide/
  46. M. Bloom, (2008) Streaming the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Streaming Media, Retrieved from http://www.streamingmedia.com/Articles/Editorial/Featured-Articles/Streaming-the-2008-Beijing-Olympics-65226.aspx
  47. MCTV News, (2016) NBCUniversal to present unprecedented 6,766 hours of Rio Olympic programming, Retrieved from https://www.mctvohio.com/rio-olympics
  48. Comcast, (2017) NBC Olympics to live stream 1,800 hours of 2018 Pyeongchang Olympics, Retrieved from https://corporate.comcast.com/news-information/news-feed/nbc-olympics-to-live-stream-1800-hours-of-2018-pyeongchang-olympics
  49. G.A. Fowler, (2006) China prepares for Olympic spotlight, changing media rules, turning to PR, Wall Street Journal. Accessed from: https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB116613117276750595
  50. Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG), (2007) Service guide for foreign media coverage of the Beijing Olympic Games and the preparatory period, http://en.beijing2008.cn/upload/Service-Guide-en/Service_Guide_en.pdf
  51. Internet Live Stats, (2016) China Internet Users, Retrieved from: http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/china/
  52. R. Petty, J. Caccioppo, (1986) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, Academic Press, New York, USA.
  53. China Internet Network Information Centre, (2018) The 41st Statistical Report on Internet Development in China, Retrieved from: https://cnnic.com.cn/IDR/ReportDownloads/201807/P020180711391069195909.pdf
  54. J.P. Bannister, J.A. Saunders, UK consumers' attitudes towards imports: The measurement of national steretype image, European Journal of Marketing, 12(1978) 562-570.
  55. C. Thompson, Beyond brand image: Analyzing the culture of brands, Advances in Consumer Research, 31(2004) 98-99.
  56. The Economist, China before the Olympics: Welcome to (rather dour) party, The Economist, 388(2008) 28-30.