Vol 8 No 4 (2019): Volume 8, Issue 4, Year 2019
Highlighted Article

Predictors of Motivation to Coach in High School Students and Adult Coaches

Merry J. Sleigh
Department of Psychology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733, United States
Donna Webster Nelson
Department of Psychology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733, United States
Alyssa M. Nelson
Department of Psychology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733, United States
Darren R. Ritzer
Department of Psychology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733, United States
Published October 29, 2019
Keywords
  • Coaches,
  • Coaching Motivation,
  • Desire to Coach,
  • Burnout,
  • Engagement,
  • High school athletes
  • ...More
    Less
How to Cite
Sleigh, M. J., Donna Webster Nelson, Alyssa M. Nelson, & Darren R. Ritzer. (2019). Predictors of Motivation to Coach in High School Students and Adult Coaches. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 8(4), 1-17. Retrieved from https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/311

Abstract

We conducted two studies to investigate predictors of coaching motivation. In Study One, we focused on variables linked to coaching motivation and burnout in adult sports coaches. We examined high school extracurricular experiences, and coaching engagement. Positive interpersonal events experienced during high school predicted coaching motivation and a motivation. Positive interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted feelings of reduced accomplishment, while negative interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted physical exhaustion. Two aspects of coaching engagement, vigor and absorption predicted coaching motivation. Thus, coaches’ motivation was predicted by both high school and current coaching events. In Study Two, we examined whether the same high school events predicted a desire to coach in recent high school graduates. Participants retrospectively reported participation in high school sports or heavy investment in alternate activities (e.g., marching band). For both groups, identification with the activity and dedication to the activity predicted a desire to coach. A desire to coach was not predicted by high school extracurricular events. Our findings indicate that high school experiences exerted differential effects on recent graduates versus adult coaches in terms of attitudes toward coaching.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

[1] G.A. Mageau, R.J. Vallerand, The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model, Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(2003) 883-904.
[2] N. Gillet, R.J. Vallerand, S. Amoura, B. Baldes, Influence of coaches’ autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 11(2010) 155-161.
[3] J. Mazer, K. Barnes, A. Grevious, C. Boger, Coach verbal aggression: A case study examining effects on athlete motivation and perceptions of coach credibility, International Journal of Sport Communication, 6(2013) 203-213.
[4] L. Gano-Overway, M. Guivernau, Setting the SCENE: Developing a caring youth sport environment, Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 9(2018) 83-93.
[5] K. Fransen, F. Boen, M. Vansteenkiste, N. Mertens, & G. Vande Broek, The power of competence support: The impact of coaches and athlete leaders on intrinsic motivation and performance, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 28 (2018) 725-745.
[6] A. Van Hoye, J-P Huezé, J. Meganck, J. Seghers, & P. Sarrazin, Coaches’ and players’ perceptions of health promotion activities in sports clubs, Heath Education Journal, 77(2018) 169-179.
[7] B. Reynders, M. Vansteenkiste, S. Van Puyenbroeck, N. Aelterman, M. De Backer, J. Delrue, G-J De Muynck, K. Fransen, L. Haerens, G.V. Broek, Coaching the coach: Intervention effects on need-supportive coaching behavior and athlete motivation and engagement, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 43(2019) 288-300.
[8] Y.H. Lee, & P. Chelladurai, Emotional intelligence, emotional labor, coach burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention in sport leadership, European Sport Management Quarterly, 8 (2018) 393-413.
[9] S.E. Short, M.W. Short, C.R. Haugen, The relationship between efficacy and burnout in coaches, International Journal of Coaching Science, 9(2015) 37-49.
[10] S. Westfall, E.M. Martin, D. Gould, The association between the coach-athlete relationship and burnout among high school coaches, Journal of Sport Behavior, 41(2018) 107-126.
[11] J.F. Guzmán, K. Kingston, C. Grijalbo, G. Solomon, Predicting coaches’ adherence/dropout: A prospective study, International Journal of Sports Sciences & Coaching, 10(2015) 353-364.
[12] S. Alcaraz, C. Viladrich, M. Torregrosa, Y. Ramis, Club and players’ pressures on the motivation, vitality, and stress of development coaches, International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 10(2015) 365-378.
[13] C. Grassman, C.C. Schermuly, D. Wach, Potential antecedents and consequences of negative effects for coaches, Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research & Practice, 12 (2019) 67-88.
[14] M. Rocchi, L.G. Pelletier, The antecedents of coaches’ interpersonal behaviors: The role of the coaching context, coaches’ psychological needs, and the coaches’ motivation, Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 39 (2017) 366-385.
[15] K.N. McLean, C.J. Mallett, P. Newcombe, Assessing coach motivation: The development of the Coach Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ), Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34 (2012) 184-207.
[16] M.A. Rocchi, L.G. Pelletier, A.L. Couture, Determinants of coach motivation and autonomy supportive coaching behaviours, Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14 (2013) 852-859.
[17] S. Jowett, What makes coaches tick? The impact of coaches’ intrinsic and extrinsic motives on their own satisfaction and that of their athletes, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18 (2008) 664-673.
[18] H.M., Weiss, R. Cropanzano, Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work, Research in Organizational Behavior, 18 (1996) 1-74.
[19] R.R. Sinclair, M. Sliter, C.D. Mohr, L.E. Sears, M.N. Deese, R.R Wright, D. Cadiz, L. Jacobs, Bad versus good, what matters more on the treatment floor? Relationships of positive and negative events with nurses’ burnout and engagement, Research in Nursing and Health, 38(2015) 475-491.
[20] D.W. Nelson, M.J. Sleigh, A.M. Nelson, Positive and negative events predict burnout and engagement in athletes and non-athletes, The Sports Journal, (2019).
[21] A. Clopton, Where does it begin? Exploring gender differences in student-athletes’ perceptions of entering the coaching profession, Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 23(2015) 34-41.
[22] F. Guillen, J.R. Martinez-Alvarado, The Sport Engagement Scale: An adaptation of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) for the sports environment, Universitas Psychologica, 13 (2014) 975-984.
[23] T.D. Raedeke, A.L. Smith, Development and preliminary validation of an athlete burnout measure, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23(2001) 281-306.
[24] J.W. Adie, S. Jowett, Meta-perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship, achievement goals and intrinsic motivation among sport participants, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(2010) 2750-2773.
[25] A. Riley, A.L. Smith, Perceived coach-athlete and peer relationships of young athletes and self-determined motivation for sport, International Journal of Sport Psychology, 42 (2011) 115-133.
[26] S. Jowett, N. Ntoumanis, The coach-athlete relationship questionnaire (CART-Q):development and initial validation, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 14(2004) 245-257.
[27] G. Bloom, (2013) Mentoring for sport coaches. In P. Potrac, W. Gilbert, & J. Denison (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Sports Coaching (pp. 476-485), Routledge , New York, NY.
[28] C. Cushion, (2015) Mentoring for success in sport coaching. In F. Chambers. (Ed.), Mentoring in Physical Education and Sports Coaching (pp. 155–162), Routledge, New York, NY.
[29] R. Reeves, R.L. Jones, Comparison of student participation motivation and coaches’ perceptions of such motivation in English high school sport (Reston, VA), International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, and Dance, 34(1998) 46-52.
[30] J.A. Busser, C.P. Carruthers, Youth sport volunteer coach motivation, Managing Leisure, 15(2010) 128-139.
[31] K. Fasting, T.S. Sand, & N. Knorre, European female sports students as future coaches? European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(2013) 307-323.
[32] B. Ragins, T. Scandura, Gender differences in expected outcomes of mentoring relationships, Academy of Management Journal, 37(1994) 957-971.
[33] M.T. Kiviniemi, C.R. Brown-Kramer, Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one’s diet versus actual dietary behavior, Journal of Health Psychology, 20(2015) 556-568.
[34] P. Coutinho, I. Mesquita, A.M. Fonseca, J. Cote, Expertise development in volleyball: The role of early sport activities and players’ age and height, Kinesiology, 47(2015) 215-225.
[35] W.D. Russell, The relationship between youth sport specialization, reasons for participation and youth sport participation motivations: A retrospective study, Journal of Sport Behavior, 37 (2014) 286-305.