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Short Review
Published: 2021-04-04

Knee alignment with and without implements in leg press and squat exercises: a systematic review

Laboratório do Exercício e do Esporte (LABEES), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
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Jurandir Baptista da Silva

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Mr. Jurandir Baptista da Silva is a Ph.D. student in Exercise and Sport Sciences from the Institute of Physical Education and Sports (IEFD), Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ). Specialization in Biomechanics from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Researcher at the Laboratory of Exercise and Sport (LABEES/UERJ). He is also an effective member of the Brazilian Society of Biomechanics and serving as a professor in Extension and Postgraduate courses in Brazil.

Laboratório do Exercício e do Esporte (LABEES), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
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Juliana Brandão Pinto de Castro

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Dr. Juliana Brandão Pinto de Castro received Ph.D. in Exercise and Sport Sciences from the Institute of Physical Education and Sports (IEFD), Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ). Master in Food, Nutrition, and Health from the Institute of Nutrition, UERJ. Graduated in Physical Education (licentiate and bachelor) from IEFD/UERJ. Researcher at the Laboratory of Exercise and Sport (LABEES/UERJ). Specialization in Higher Education Teaching (UCAM). Specialization in Geriatrics and Gerontology by the Faculty of Medical Sciences (FCM/UERJ).

Universidade do Estado do Pará (UEPA) Campus XIII de Tucuruí-PA, Brazil
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Claudio Joaquim Borba-Pinheiro

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Dr. Claudio Joaquim Borba-Pinheiro obtained his Ph.D. in Science from the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO-RJ). Master in Human Motricity Sciences from the Castelo Branco University (UCB-RJ). Graduated in Physical Education from the Pará State University (UEPA-PA) with specialization in Judo (EsEFEx / UFRJ, 2001). Currently serving as a professor at the Federal Institute of Pará (IFPA) and the Pará State University (UEPA), both on the campuses of Tucuruí-PA, Brazil. Also, a coordinator of the Postgraduate Program Health in School Physical Education (UEPA-PA).

Laboratório do Exercício e do Esporte (LABEES), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
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Giovanne Moraes Ribeiro

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Mr. Giovanne Moraes Ribeiro completed his Master in Exercise and Sport Sciences from the Institute of Physical Education and Sports (IEFD), Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ). Specialization in Strength Training and Functional Training from Castelo Branco University (UCB). Graduated in Physical Education from UCB.

Escola de Educação Física do Exército (EsEFEx), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
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Danielli Braga de Mello

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Dr. Danielli Braga de Mello received her Ph.D. in Public Health from Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (2008). Completed her Post-Doctorate at Physiology in Extreme Environments from University of Portsmouth – UK (2016). Second Post-Doctorate in Thermography applied to Sport at the Polytechnic University of Madrid – ES (2019). Currently, she is serving as an Associate Professor at the Physical Education College of Brazilian Army (EsEFEx) and researcher at the Laboratory of Exercise and Sport (LABEES/UERJ). She is also a collaborating Professor at the Laboratory of Biosciences of Human Motricity (LABIMH/UNIRIO) and the Postgraduate Program in Exercise and Sport Sciences (PPGCEE/UERJ). She is the Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Physical Education (REF/JPE). Author of the book “Ciclismo Indoor”.

Laboratório do Exercício e do Esporte (LABEES), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e do Esporte, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil
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Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale

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Dr. Rodrigo Gomes de Souza Vale Post-Doctorate in Biosciences from the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO). PhD in Health Sciences from Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN). Master in Human Motricity Science (UCB-RJ). Graduated in Physical Education (UFRJ). Adjunct Professor at the Institute of Physical Education and Sports (IEFD/UERJ). Coordinator of the Laboratory of Exercise and Sport (LABEES/UERJ). Professor at the Postgraduate Program in Exercise and Sport Sciences (PPGCEE/UERJ). Professor of the Physical Education and Physiotherapy course at Estacio de Sa University (UNESA-Cabo Frio/RJ). Coordinator of the Laboratory of Exercise Physiology (LAFIEX) and the Physical Education course at the Estacio de Sa University (UNESA-Cabo Frio/RJ).

Resistance training Leg Press Squat Knee Muscle strength

Abstract

Resistance training has been commonly used as a method of intervention in the rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries affecting the knee. Thus, the objective of this systematic review was to identify the methods employed with and without implements in leg press and squat exercises for the maintenance of knee alignment. The literature search was performed in the databases: PubMed, SciELO, and Lilacs. We used the descriptors "muscle strength" and "exercise" and their synonyms, available in the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) and the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), with the terms "valgus knee" and "varus knee". From the 1,117 articles found, eight studies were considered for the review. The included studies had samples composed of young men and women with advanced levels of training. Despite verifying conditions of valgus or varus knee, the studies presented different protocols and assessment methods. The implements comprised physioball, elastic resistance, and wedge. Electromyography and kinematics were used to assess muscle activity and movement patterns. These results reinforced the possibility of using implements to induce muscle and joint actions to reduce varus and valgus conditions. We suggest more studies to define the best strategies to reduce the excessive deviation of the patella in people who have valgus or varus knee.

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How to Cite

Baptista da Silva, J., Pinto de Castro, J. B., Borba-Pinheiro, C. J., Moraes Ribeiro, G., Braga de Mello, D., & Gomes de Souza Vale, R. (2021). Knee alignment with and without implements in leg press and squat exercises: a systematic review. International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports, 10(2), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.34256/ijpefs2121

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