International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports The International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports (IJPEFS) is an international, print / online quarterly journal (ISSN.No: Print (2277-5447) and Online (2457-0753) ) published in English. The aim of IJPEFS is to stimulate knowledge to professionals, researchers and academicians working in the fields of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports Sciences. Eleyon en-US International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2277-5447 Predictors of Motivation to Coach in High School Students and Adult Coaches <p>We conducted two studies to investigate predictors of coaching motivation. In Study One, we focused on variables linked to coaching motivation and burnout in adult sports coaches. We examined high school extracurricular experiences, and coaching engagement. Positive interpersonal events experienced during high school predicted coaching motivation and a motivation. Positive interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted feelings of reduced accomplishment, while negative interpersonal and performance events in high school predicted physical exhaustion. Two aspects of coaching engagement, vigor and absorption predicted coaching motivation. Thus, coaches’ motivation was predicted by both high school and current coaching events. In Study Two, we examined whether the same high school events predicted a desire to coach in recent high school graduates. Participants retrospectively reported participation in high school sports or heavy investment in alternate activities (e.g., marching band). For both groups, identification with the activity and dedication to the activity predicted a desire to coach. A desire to coach was not predicted by high school extracurricular events. Our findings indicate that high school experiences exerted differential effects on recent graduates versus adult coaches in terms of attitudes toward coaching.</p> Merry J. Sleigh Donna Webster Nelson Alyssa M. Nelson Darren R. Ritzer Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 1 17 10.26524/ijpefs1941 Comparison of Nutrition Status and Knowledge Level of Sports Trainers and Individuals Attended with Nine-Round Fitness Sports <p>The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the nutritional knowledge levels and nutritional status of the sports trainers and individuals doing nine-round fitness sports, and compare the relationship between two groups. One hundred individuals doing sports and 10 trainers were included in the study. A questionnaire about general demographic information, anthropometric measurements, nutritional habits and sporting status were applied to the participants. In addition, 1-day retrospective food consumption record was taken to evaluate the intake levels of macro and micronutrients, and The Basic Nutrition Knowledge Level for Adults (YETBID) Scale was applied to measure the nutritional knowledge of the participants. The mean energy (kcal), protein (g), fat (g) and carbohydrate (g) intakes were found to be 1930±832,6, 117,8±61,3, 88±34,5, 159±111,1 for trainers and 1465±533, 81,8±33,9, 66,6±26,4, 128±76,9 for individuals doing sports, respectively. A significant difference was found between two groups in terms of energy intakes <em>(p=0,042)</em> whereas, no significant difference was found between the levels of macro nutrient intakes between trainers and individuals doing sports (<em>p&gt;0.05</em>). According to the YETBID scores, it was found that the total score of individuals doing sports was significantly higher than trainers’ <em>(p=0.037)</em>. It was concluded that the level of nutritional knowledge of sports trainers and individuals doing sports did not affect the nutritional status. Furthermore, dietitians should be present at sport centers and nutrition trainings should be arranged in order to prevent improper nutrition practices.</p> A. Humeyra Islamoglu I. Aycan Basoglu Aleyna A. Ozbey Feyza Tosya F. Esra Gunes Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 18 25 10.26524/ijpefs1942 A Comparison Study for the use of Mixed Training (Training with Weight and Plyometric) In the Development of the Distinctive Strength Speed as the Players of the Handball. <p>The research aims to the comparison between the impact of the training with weight, plyometric training and mixed training and the development of the distinctive strength speed as the handball players. The experimental method was adopted due to its adequate relation with the research problem, and used the pilot curriculum of four (04) groups, three of them are experimental one is training with weight and second is plyometric training and the third for mixed training, and one is control. The study was applied on a sample of 64 players divided into 16 players of each group. The most important results are the superiority of the training program of the mixed (weights and plyometric) to other programs in the results of the tests under the search. Thus recommends that the researchers and emphasize the use of mixed training for the development of the distinctive strength speed as the players of the handball.</p> Harbach Brahim Djamel Mokrani Benzidane Houcine Ibrahim Reda Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 26 35 10.26524/ijpefs1943 Assessment of throwing arm biomechanics with a motusBASEBALLTM pitching sleeve during long-toss throws and pitching in college baseball pitchers <p>In baseball, long-toss throws are commonly used in return-to-throw programs and for general conditioning; however, the majority of these programs are based on conventional wisdom. Few studies have examined the biomechanics of long-toss throwing and the impact of throw distance. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist among commonly-used sub-maximal distance long-toss throws and mound pitching. Nineteen college baseball pitchers (19 ± 1.3 years; 88.3 ± 8.4 kg; and 73.9 ± 18.6 cm) wore a motusBASEBALL™ sleeve and sensor which measured peak elbow varus torque (VT), peak forearm angular velocity (Vmax), and peak arm-cocking angle (ACA). Each player completed five long-toss throws at distances of 27 m, 37 m, 46 m, 55 m and five pitches from a mound at regulation (18.4 m). There were no significant differences among throwing conditions for both VT and Vmax (p&lt;0.05). For ACA, there was a significant increase (approximately 12°) as the long-toss distance increased. Coaches and trainers should be aware that sub-maximal distance long-toss throws (27 - 55 m+) generate high-magnitude throwing arm biomechanics (kinetics, velocities, range of motion) that approach or even exceed those generated during pitching; precaution needs to be used when implementing long-tosses into throwing and rehabilitation programs.</p> Jeff T. Wight Brittany Dowling Jaclyn O’Loughlin Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 36 44 10.26524/ijpefs1944 Physical activity monitoring devices: energy expenditure comparison in a setting of free-living activities <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of Energy Expenditure (EE) estimation provided by 3 wearable devices [Fitbit-One (FO), Sensewear Armband (AR) and Actiheart (AC)] in a setting of free-living activities. 43 participants (24 females; 23.4±.4,5yrs) performed 9 activities: sedentary (watching video, reading), walking (on treadmill and outdoor), running (on treadmill and outdoor) and moderate-to-vigorous activities (Wii gaming, taking the stairs and playing football). Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Pearson’s correlation were calculated to assess the validity of each instrument in comparison to a portable metabolic analyser (PMA). In overall comparison MAPE’s were 7,7% for AR (r=.86; p&lt;.0001), 8,6% for FO (r=.69; P&lt;.001), and 11.6% for AC (r=.81; p&lt;.0001). These findings support the accuracy of the wearables. The AR was the most accurate in the whole protocol. However, MAPE results suggest that devices algorithms should be improved for better measure of EE during moderate-to-vigorous activities.</p> Matteo Vandoni Vittoria Carnevale Pellino Stefano Dell'Anna Elena Ricagno Giulia Liberali Claudia Bonfanti Luca Correale Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 45 54 10.26524/jpefs1945 Comparison of response quality and attack recognition in karate kumite between reality and virtual reality – a pilot study <p>Virtual reality (VR) is an often-used instrument in sports science research and practical training. However, VR studies with experienced athletes and sports specific tasks are rare. Furthermore, the transfer from interventions in VR into reality is even less investigated. It is possible to analyze benefits of VR using in-situ studies comparing human behavior in VR with reality. If no differences occur in the human behavior, then VR would be appropriate for interventions to improve athletes’ performance. Therefore, we let seven karate athletes respond each to ten attacks of a real attacker (reality) and a virtual attacker (VR using a Head Mounted Display) and compared the parameters “response quality” and “attack recognition” under both conditions. As attacks we chose Gyaku-Zuki (reverse punch, GZ) and Kizami-Zuki (attack with the front arm, KZ). ANOVAs and sign tests showed isolated cases of significant differences between both conditions: response quality in KZ, and attack recognition for 150ms in GZ, all p&lt;0.05; p&gt;0.05). The remaining comparisons showed no significant differences (p&gt;0.05). We conclude that further research is needed but the results of the present pilot study are promising to assume that VR is suitable for applications because similar performance outcome in reality and VR were obtained.</p> Katharina Petri Peter Emmermacher Steffen Masik Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 55 63 10.26524/ijpefs1946 Comparison of Estimated-1RM and 225-lb (102-kg) bench press performance between starters and non-starters among a NCAA Division I college football team <p>The estimated one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and NFL-225 (225-lb or 102-kg) repetition test are commonly used to assess upper-body muscular strength and endurance among football players. However, little research has been focused on the relationship of these tests to playing status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if significant relationships exist between these tests and playing status in Division I football athletes. Archival data from 31 NCAA Division I football players (age: 20.1±1.4 yrs., height: 188.07 ± 5.93 cm, body mass: 112.4 ± 19.5 kg) on the 1RM Bench press test, NFL-225 test and playing status were utilized for this analysis. A one-way ANOVA was used to detect any differences in 1RM and NFL-225 performance between skill groups: big (linemen), medium (linebackers, quarterbacks, tight ends) and small (receivers, backs, and corners) (<em>p </em>&lt; 0.05). Playing status (starters vs. non-starters) were compared within position groups. A point bi-serial correlation was then utilized to examine the relationship in test performance between groups, as well as between starters and non-starters. Significant differences were discovered in NFL-225 test performance between big and small skill groups. Moderate-to-strong relationships between playing status and performance on the 1RM bench press (<em>r</em> = .660) and the NFL-225 test (<em>r</em> = .685) for the big skills group. The results of this study suggest that playing status and upper-body strength and endurance are strongly related for the big skills position group.</p> Cody A. Stahl J.B. Mann Robert G. Lockie J. Jay Dawes Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 64 75 10.26524/ijpefs1947 Comparative values, correlation and classification of basketball players based on the efficiency index and expert evaluation by coaches <p>Measuring the efficiency of athletes during competition has been a subject of interest both for experts and scientists in sports for more than a hundred years. Basketball has recognized in the 1940s how important it is to analyze efficiency indicators because these procedures allow coaches to increase their knowledge. There are two basic methods – objective and subjective – for evaluating the efficiency, or real quality of basketball players. The aim of this research is to establish the level of correlation between these two methods and to identify clusters, i.e. player hierarchy based on the results of both methods of efficiency evaluation. The sample of variables consisted of 12 basketball players who participated in the 2010 FIBA World Championships in Turkey. The subjective evaluation, also called expert evaluation, was performed by coaches of seven national teams that participated in the Championship. The objective evaluation was performed using the EEF efficiency index. The data was processed using z-scoring, the Pearson coefficient, and hierarchical cluster analysis. The Pearson coefficients of linear correlation between the efficiency index and the expert evaluation is <em>r = </em>0.859 with a statistical significance of <em>p</em> ≤ 0.01. The cluster analysis distinguished two groups of players, which were named quality and super quality. The variance analysis showed that the probability of the clusters being equal is less than <em>p</em> ≤ 0.00. The research has shown that the evaluation by coaches is relevant and is fully consistent with the efficiency index formula. Also, the distinction of two groups of players by clustering is not uncommon in the basketball practice and is linked with efficiency at the given time.</p> Slobodan Simovic Bojan Matkovic Mihajlo Mijanovic Milenko Vojvodic Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 76 87 10.26524/ijpefs1948 Soccer Specific Fitness Differences Across the Common Playing Position Players <p>As a complex team sport, success in soccer relies on individuals’ performance, collective performance, and most importantly on team performance. In soccer, players are usually assigned to a specific position based on the demands of the position and the corresponding qualities of the players. The performance factors are varied and interrelated. As such, whether speed, change-of-direction-speed (CODS) and repeated sprinting ability (RSA) are used to discriminate different position players is not well-established. The purpose of this study was to examine how different position players are different against these parameters. The study participants included 88 soccer players at the Ethiopian National Soccer League classified into six playing positions such as center-backs, fullbacks, holding-midfielders, attacking-midfielders, outside-midfielders and strikers. The participant players speed, CODS and RSA were measured weekly for about five weeks. The authors analyzed the collected data using one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell multiple comparisons. Results indicated that the position discriminating power of the three measures, including speed, CODS and RSA was found minimal. Among the different position players, only outside-midfielders were significantly higher performers with these qualities measured. Therefore, it was concluded that the performance difference in speed, CODS and RSA among the six position players is not a good discriminator, except for outside-midfielders, who outperformed all other position players (excluding the fullbacks) with the studied parameters.</p> Belayneh Chekle Tefera Tadesse Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 88 96 10.26524/ijpefs1949 Body Composition and Somatotype in Elite Handball Players <p>As the main objective, this research work had to compare pre and post complex training effects on body composition in elite handball players in the Spanish 2<sup>nd</sup> Division. Eleven players were included in the study. Six of them formed an experimental group, and 5 of them the control group. They have undergone the complex training session which was done once a week. The following parameters were analyzed: BMI (Body Mass Index), somatotype, FM (Fat Mass), MM (Muscle mass), RM (Residual Mass), WHR (Waist to Hip Ratio), BM (Bone Mass). The results have shown that there was a not statistically significant difference after the 6 – week program neither in body composition and somatotypes. Since this program did not have a big influence on body composition we could say that complex training influences body composition should be further researched.</p> Pantović Marko Marko Joksimović Brkić Boris Gladysheva Anna Karišik Siniša Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 97 107 10.26524/ijpefs19410 Chronological Age and Training Age as Determinants of Soccer Specific Speeds <p>The main purpose of this study was to unveil how chronological and training age or maturity of soccer players relate or affect linear sprinting speed, repeated sprinting ability (RSA), and change-of-direction speed (CODS) performance. Competitive soccer players at the Ethiopian national soccer league level participated in the study. A total of 88 volunteered soccer players (age, 22.25±2.27 years old; training age; 9.38±2.78 years) who were free from any kind of injury at the time of data collection completed the study protocol. While age was calculated using a player’s birth certificate, fitness performance was measured using specific test protocols for each fitness element. For credibility, fitness test was conducted on a weekly basis for about five consecutive weeks and the average was taken. Bivariate correlation, partial correlation and GLM analyses were used. The bivariate correlation showed that sprinting speed (r (88) = -.254, p=.017), CODS (r (88) = -216, p.043) and RSA best (r (88) = 0.235, p=.028) significantly correlated with age (p&lt;.05). However, RSA total time, RSA average and RSA worst did not correlate with age. With training age, only CODS showed small, but significant negative correlation (r (88) = -.230, p=.031). While sprinting speed significantly correlated with maturity, other qualities that rely on the ability to produce the best performance repeatedly did not relate with age or training age. These findings suggest that speed and speed related performances depend on maturity and genetic make-up and these are less trainable qualities that may not significantly improve over time.</p> Belayneh Chekle Tefera Tadesse Zerihun Birhanu Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-10-29 2019-10-29 8 4 108 116 10.26524/ijpefs19411 Implementing Diverse Instructional Strategies in Adapted physical Education Program: A case study of a child with autism <p>The number of individual with autism has been increased past decades. Along with the prevalence, diverse instruction strategies were introduced and implemented in the field of adapted physical education/activity. The purpose of this case study is investigating the effectiveness of the instructional strategies for children with disabilities. A student, nine years old boy with autism, participated in this study. Four different teaching strategies, reproductive teaching style, video modeling, system of least prompts, and chaining strategy, were implemented to teach a target skill, overhand throw. Task analysis were implemented to measure the skill performance weekly for three weeks. The result indicated that the participant showed improvement in on a skill component, T position. The participant did not showed notable improvement on overall skill performance.</p> Eun Hye Kwon Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 8 4 117 124 10.26524/ijpefs19412 Effect of Sport Media on Social Behaviour: The Attitude and Perception Change of Chinese College Students toward the International Media Reporting the Beijing Olympics <p>This study assessed the attitude and perceptions of college students in China before and immediately after the 2008 Beijing Olympics toward the international media's reporting of the Games and China. A total of 657 students from seven campuses eight months before the Olympics and 1,000 students from ten campuses immediately after the Olympics were randomly surveyed. The data analysis (independent <em>t</em>-Test) depicts that the students' attitudes and perceptions toward the international media had positively changed from the pre- to the post-Olympic surveys. One-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and <em>Scheffe’s</em> post hoc test results revealed that the survey respondents’ political preferences were the constant factors that influenced their attitude and perception change toward the international media. This study illustrates a media effect on changing the survey participants’ and their represented population’s attitude and perceptions toward the international media’s coverage of sport mega-events that is supported by the theories of mega-events and modernity, media communication and social behaviour, and social impact.</p> Charlie Song Jianhua Zhang Aiguang Zhou Stu Ryan Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 8 4 125 141 10.26524/ijpefs19413 Tennis players and their levels of self-esteem. A comparative study on psychology at an intercollegiate tennis tournament? <p>The present research was conducted to investigate the relationship between tennis playing and self-esteem, and also, some variables at an intercollegiate tennis tournament. To this and, a total of 240 students (M<sub>age</sub>:21,05±1,78) from different universities voluntarily participated in the study. In the process, as a data collection tool, Coopersmith Self-esteem inventory by developed Coopersmith in 1967 was used in this study and it was used to determine the participants' scores of self-esteem. A comparing design was used in the present research. This design was chosen because differences between three and more parameters were investigated in the study group. Descriptive statistics and frequency analysis were calculated for determining demographic features and scores (M, SD etc.). Participants were compared using Mann-Whitney U &amp; Kruskal-Wallis H Tests analysis. According to the results of the research, there was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between male and female students. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem among different departments and universities. There was not a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a physical injury and not having a physical injury. On the other hand, there was a significant statistical difference in self-esteem between having a psychological disorder and not having a psychological disorder. This result shows that playing tennis can change the self-esteem level in a positive direction.</p> Korkmaz YİĞİTER Yunus ZENGİN Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-12-23 2019-12-23 8 4 142 148 10.26524/ijpefs19414 The effect of repetition ranges on maximal strength and hypertrophy <p>This study investigated the effects of repetition ranges with modified intensity and volume on muscle mass and maximal strength. Fourteen healthy athletes from a sports club were randomly assigned to either a low repetitions or high repetitions group. The low repetitions (LR) group performed 3 sets of 3-5 reps at 90-95% one repetition maximum (1RM) and high repetitions (HR) group performed 5 sets of 10-12 repetitions at 60-70% 1RM in specific strength training exercises for eight weeks. Muscle strength and muscle thickness measures were taken at baseline, four weeks and after the eight weeks of training. Results show LR gained better maximal strength than the HR group after the eight weeks of training in both the flat bench press and the squat test (p=0.0201 and p=0.0165 respectively). As for muscle thickness, outcomes of the quadriceps cross section thickness were almost identical between the two groups. There was no significant difference in 4 or 8 weeks (p=0.8776 and p=0.9335 respectively). Our findings suggest performing low repetitions with high intensity (load) is more beneficial for gaining maximal strength and muscle mass in short training cycles. Further research is needed to substantiate these findings in a larger cohort.</p> Adda Ghoual Copyright (c) 2019 International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports 2019-12-23 2019-12-23 8 4 149 157 10.26524/ijpefs19415