International Journal of Physical Education, Fitness and Sports https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs en-US editor@ijpefs.com (Dr. B. Chittibabu) contact@ijpefs.com (IJPEFS) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Characterizing the Metabolic Intensity and Cardiovascular Demands of Walking Football in Southeast Asian Women https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/229 <p>Given that the recent rise in obesity rates throughout Southeast Asia is disproportionately driven by women, part of the regional solution may be to encourage more habitual physical activity within this population. Taking advantage of the regional popularity of walking football, this study sought to characterize the<br>cardiovascular demands and metabolic intensity of Southeast Asian women competing in walking football matches to determine the sports’ suitability for promoting physical health. It was hypothesized that both cardiovascular and metabolic intensity measures (≥65% HR% and ≥3.0 METs, respectively) would meet or exceed established thresholds for improving fitness and health. Methods: Women’s teams from Singapore (Mean±SD: 42±11 yrs age; 29.2±7.0 kg/m<sup>2</sup> BMI; n=14) and Malaysia (40±10 yrs age; 32.9±5.7 kg/m<sup>2</sup> BMI; n=8) competed in two successive matches within a single day during which measures of heart rate (HR) and GPS (from portable handheld device) were recorded for each player, while relative HR was computed as a percent of each player’s age-predicted maximal HR (HR%, %). The GPS data were later converted to walking distance and metabolic intensity (i.e., metabolic equivalents, or METs). One-sample t-tests at the 0.05 alpha level were used to compare variables to their respective thresholds. Results: Both Malaysian and Singaporean teams had mean relative HRs (91-95% of HRM<sub>AX</sub> [P=0.008] versus 77-80% of HR<sub>MAX</sub> [P&lt;0.001], respectively) that exceeded the 65% threshold for improving cardiovascular fitness. Both teams also maintained an average metabolic intensity that was statistically similar to the 3.0 MET threshold that decreases one risk for non-communicable diseases (3.2±0.9 METs [P=0.0510] versus (3.3±1.0 METs [P=0.288], respectively), and both teams walked an average of 2.2-2.4 kms/match. Conclusions: These results support the idea that competitive walking football is of sufficient intensity to promote positive changes in both cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in this population of Southeast Asian women.</p> D.P. Heil, R.U. Newton, D.D.A. Salle ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/229 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Reliability of independent kinetic variables and measures of inter-limb asymmetry associated with bilateral drop-landing performance https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/224 <p>The purpose of this investigation was to establish the within-session reliability for peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), time to peak vGRF, and loading rate, both unilaterally and bilaterally, during a drop-landing task as well as the reliability of inter-limb asymmetry in peak vGRF. Twenty-two men (age = 22 ± 4 years; height = 180.4 ± 6.1 cm; mass = 77.9 ± 14.0 kg) and 17 women (age = 20.4 ± 3.6 years; height = 164.6 ± 9.4 cm; mass = 60.3 ± 9.8 kg) volunteered for a single testing session. Participants completed three maximum countermovement jumps (CMJ) to establish maximum jump height before performing five bilateral drop-landings from 50%, 100%, and 150% of their maximum CMJ height. The bilateral drop-landing protocol was then repeated after a 10 min recovery. Systematic bias, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV%) and minimal detectable change (MDC) values for each kinetic measurement was calculated for the left and right leg, as well as their average. There was no systematic bias present between trials (<em>P</em> &gt; 0.05). All kinetic measurements showed relative reliability, ranging from <em>large</em> to <em>near perfect </em>(ICC = 0.57–0.95). Absolute reliability ranged considerably depending on the measure and drop-height, with peak vGRF and time to peak GRF showing the greatest reliability at higher drop heights (CV% = 6.6–9.7%). Loading rate for all drop heights demonstrated CV% ranging 13.0–27.6%. Furthermore, MDC values for inter-limb asymmetries in peak vGRF ranged between 14.5–16.2% for all drop heights. Overall, many of the kinetic measurements evaluated were sufficiently reliable to detect typical changes in bilateral drop-landing performance when greater drop heights were used<strong>.</strong></p> Louis Philip Howe, Jamie North, Mark Waldron, Theodoros Bampouras ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/224 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Can Physics Help Athletes Run Faster on a Curve Track https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/225 <p><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">Sprinting on a curve is slower than sprinting on a straight lane. To explain this phenomenon, various models based on a combination of biological and physical assumptions have been developed. These models depend on detailed parameters that significantly differ for each individual athlete. Here, we propose a general model solely based on kinetic theory of physics that can be universally applied to all athletes. By solving the force and torque equations for the running speed of the athletes on a curved track, we analyzed sprinting speeds between the inner and outer curves. Applying the data from the classic works into our models, we find that our results and conclusions are mostly aligned with the previous works while our approach is built on the accurate physics principles and contains no uncontrollable parameters. Further we show how runners can alleviate the </span><span lang="PT" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;">centrifugal effect</span><span lang="EN-US" style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt;"> of curved track by tilting their bodies and we quantitatively determine the optimal tilting angle for a given curvature.</span></p> Katherine H Han ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/225 Wed, 26 Sep 2018 15:34:02 +0000 Physical performance measures following ten weeks of taekwondo training in children: A pilot study https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/223 <p>The primary purpose was to examine changes in balance, lower extremity (LE) power and flexibility following 10 weeks of taekwondo (TKD) training and to determine if this was different in children classified as healthy weight (HW) and overweight (OW)/obese. Participants included 17 children (HW: n = 11, OW/obese: n = 6). Data were collected on balance, LE power and flexibility at baseline and 10 weeks. Balance was assessed with eyes open in normal (NSEO), tandem (TSEO), single (SLEO) stances and with eyes closed for normal (NSEC) and tandem (TSEC) stances. Center of pressure displacements in mediolateral (Xavg) and anteroposterior (Y<sub>avg</sub>) directions; and average velocity (V<sub>avg</sub>) were calculated. Analyses included two-way ANOVA and Mann Whitney U tests (P &lt; 0.05). Balance data indicated significant interaction effects for X<sub>avg</sub> in NSEO, Y<sub>avg</sub> in TSEO; time effects for Y<sub>avg</sub> in NSEO, NSEC and SLEO and V<sub>avg</sub> in SLEO conditions. A significant group effect was shown for Vavg in the NSEO, NSEC and TSEO and for Y<sub>avg</sub> in TSEC conditions. Flexibility decreased significantly with TKD. Findings suggest that 10 weeks of TKD training may improve balance in children, and OW/obese group may have greater improvements in balance with eyes open compared to their peers.</p> Neeti Pathare, Rachel Kimball, Elizabeth Donk, Kyle Kennedy, Mellissa Perry ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/223 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The more sleep – the better the physical state? An analysis from running https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/226 <p>Studies focusing on effects of sleep on physical performance respectively running are sparse. In the younger past knowledge evoked that sleep debt has many effects on dietary intake and predisposes adiposity or diabetes. It is suggested that the current obesity epidemic is also caused by sleep dept which influences endocrine homeostasis (Leptin, Ghrelin, Neuropeptide Y, galanin, orexin, insulin homeostasis) and affects eating behavior in consequence. Especially glucose homeostasis is strongly coupled with endurance capacity respectively running performance. Sleep debt goes in with a dysregulation of the Melatonin system affecting ACTH-Cortisol Homeostasis while having effects on running performance. Running has positive effects on sleep quality but the counter mechanism that good sleep improves running performance is only partly elucidated. However, sufficient sleep is of highest importance for improving personal best times and hard training days are only possible with adequate sleep. When looking forward newest findings indicate, that hard training days go in with a reduced sleep efficiency underlying the complex mechanism remaining to be elucidated.</p> Benedikt Andreas Gasser ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/226 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Innovative Shotgun Shooting Methods on Collegiate Shotgun Shooters https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/231 <div>Sporting activities are classified according to movement demands and can be categorized as either dynamic or static actions. Many events exist within the discipline of “shooting sports”, and dynamic and static demands vary drastically among those events. However, consideration for differences in movement demands is frequently disregarded in shooting sports; common practice protocol encourages sh&nbsp;ooters to utilize static</div> <div>shooting techniques for all shooting sport events. In particular, shooting techniques for shotgun shooting, a</div> <div>dynamic sporting event, regularly align with rifle shooting (static activity) methods. Innovative dynamic shotgun</div> <div>shoot ing techniques have recently been developed, however, no previous studies have examined the outcomes of employing these dynamic techniques. Therefore, the current research investigated the effects of innovative</div> <div>shotgun shooting methods on collegiate shotg&nbsp;un shooters (n=38). Pre and post trap and skeet scores were</div> <div>collected at a certified International Shooting Sport Federation and USA Shooting competition field. Upon</div> <div>completion of pre-test shooting, subjects participated in an Optimum Shooting Performance (OSP) intervention</div> <div>that outlined innovative dynamic shooting and practice techniques. Post-test shooting scores were collected after2-weeks of OSP practice. A paired sample t test identified statistically significant improvements for trap shootingscores (t[32] = 2.82, p = .008, 95% CI [0.431, 2.660], d = .49),skeet shooting scores (t[32] = 2.59, p = .01, 95% CI[0.436, 3.625], d = .45), and total shooting (sum score of trap and skeet tests) scores (t[32] = 3.37, p = .002, 95%CI [1.417, 5.734], d = .59). These results suggest that learning and utilizing the OSP methods significantly</div> <div>increased the shooting performance of college shotgun shooters.</div> Andrew Allen Wolfe, Kayla Peak, Jana Burch, Gerald Burch ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/231 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Are internal focuses really useful? https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/230 <p>To evaluate the external vs. internal focus during free basketball shots in non-basketball players. For this analysis 49 subjects participated in one baseline and one experimental session. During the baseline session<br>all the participants performed 20 free basketball shots without instructions (Non-Instructions). During the<br>experimental session participants were randomly allocated to one group: Dominant-Group, which performed the free basketball shots with the dominant hand; or a Non-dominant Group, which performed the shots with the non-dominant hand. Both groups performed 20 throws under internal and external focus of attention conditions. In the Dominant-Group internal focus of attention resulted in a higher number of successful shots compared with the external focus condition. Our study does not support previous findings and shows that external focus of attention impairs the performance of free basketball shots with the dominant hand in comparison with internal focus and ¨no instructions¨ conditions, in non-basketball players.</p> Dan Río Rodríguez, Eliseo Iglesias-Soler, Jorge Cuadrado-Pérez, Miguel Ferández-del-Olmo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/230 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Sporting events among the disabled between excellence and ideal in motor performance https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/238 <p>The identification of mechanical variables in the motor performance trajectory has a prominent role in improving skill performance, error-exceeding, it contributes seriously to solving some problems of learning and training. The study Aims to highlight the indicators of motor performance for Paralympic athletes during the practicing sports between modelling and between excellences in motor performance, this by taking into account the distinction of athlete practicing with special behavioral skills for the Paralympic athletes. In the study we relied on the analysis of some previous research of biomechanical performance indicators during some of the events sports (shooting activities in the Paralympic athletics, shooting skill in the wheelchair basketball). The results of the study highlight the distinction of disabled practitioners of sporting events identified in motor performance during practice, by overcoming some physics indicators in human movement, as a lower centre of body weight, Increase in offset distance, such resistance which requires them to redouble their efforts. However, the results of the study highlighted the strength of the correlation between biomechanical variables of motor performance and the digital level achievement similar to the other practitioners normal.</p> Guebli Abdelkader, Reguieg Madani, Belkadi Adel, Sbaa Bouabdellah ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ijpefs.com/index.php/ijpefs/article/view/238 Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0000